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Introduction to Chinese Culture by Li Yunfang

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中国文化 Chinese Culture

China – 中国 – Zhōngguó

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rot

Thanks to Ms. Li Yunfang for her her contribution!

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一 地理概况 Geographical Situation of China (yī dìlǐ ɡàikuànɡ)

1.面积: 960万平方公里 area: 9.6 million square km

miàn jī: 960 wàn pínɡ fānɡ ɡōnɡ lǐ

china

2. 形状: 雄鸡 shape: Rooster

xínɡ zhuànɡ : xiónɡ jī

3. 行政划分: 34个省级行政单位 34 provincial administrative units

包括23个省、4个直辖市(北京、天津、上海、重庆)、5个自治区(内蒙古自治区、广西壮族自治区、西藏自治区、宁夏回族自治区和新疆维吾尔自治区)、2个特别行政区(香

港、澳门)

Including 23 provinces, 4 municipalities directly under the central government (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing), 5 autonomous regions (Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang), 2 special administrative regions (Hong Kong, Macao)

xínɡ zhènɡ huà fēn : 34 ɡè shěnɡ jí xínɡ zhènɡ dān wèi。

bāo kuò 23 ɡè shěnɡ 、4 ɡè zhí xiá shì(běi jīnɡ 、tiān jīn 、shànɡ hǎi 、chónɡ

qìnɡ ) 、5 ɡè zì zhì qū(nèi měnɡ ɡǔ zì zhì qū 、ɡuǎnɡ xī zhuànɡ zú zì zhì

qū 、 xī zànɡ zì zhì qū 、nínɡ xià huí zú zì zhì qū hé xīn jiānɡ wéi wú ěr zì

zhì qū ) 、 2 ɡè tè bié xínɡ zhènɡ qū ( xiānɡ ɡǎnɡ 、ào mén )

map of provinces in china

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4. 母亲河:华夏文明的发源地,长江和黄河

Mother Rivers: the birthplace of Chinese civilization, the Yangtze River and the Yellow River

mǔ qīn hé : huá xià wén mínɡ de fā yuán dì , chánɡ jiānɡ hé huánɡ hé

5. 五岳: 东岳泰山、西岳华山、南岳衡山、北岳恒山、中岳嵩山

The five mountains:

East Mountain Taishan in Shandong, West Mountain Huashan in Shanxi, South Mountain Hengshan in Hunan, North Mountain Hengshan in Shanxi and Central Mountain Songshan in Henan

wǔ yuè :dōnɡ yuè tài shān 、xī yuè huà shān 、nán yuè hénɡ shān 、běi yuè hénɡ

shān 、 zhōnɡ yuè sōnɡ shān

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二 历史演变 Historical Evolution (èr lì shǐ yǎn biàn)

1.三皇:伏羲、神农、黄帝

The three emperors: Fu Xi, Shen Nong, Huang Di (dates unknown may be legendary)

sān huánɡ : fú xī 、 shén nónɡ 、 huánɡ dì

炎黄子孙 Chinese descent

yán huánɡ zǐ sūn

华夏文明 Chinese civilization

huá xià wén mínɡ

2. 朝代的的更迭 the change of dynasties

cháo dài de ɡēnɡ dié

夏 Xia , xià (about 2070 – 1600 BC)

商 Shang ,shānɡ (about 1600 – 1046 BC)

周 Zhou (1000 – 200 BC)

西周 Western Zhou ,

东周:春秋、战国 Eastern Zhou: the Spring and Autumn period、the Warring States period

zhōu

xī zhōu

dōnɡ zhōu : chūn qiū 、 zhàn ɡuó

秦(公元前 221年建立)Qin dynasty was founded in 221 BC

qín ( ɡōnɡ yuán qián 221 nián jiàn lì )

汉 Han

西汉(公元前206年- 公元8年)Western Han

东汉(25年建立)eastern Han

hàn

xī hàn ( ɡōnɡ yuán qián 206 nián – ɡōnɡ yuán 8 nián )

dōnɡ hàn ( 25 nián jiàn lì )

三国(魏、蜀、吴)the three kingdoms

sān ɡuó ( wèi 、 shǔ 、 wú )

魏晋南北朝the Wei-Jin, Southern & Northern Dynasties periods

wèi jìn nán běi cháo

隋(581年-618年)Sui

suí ( 581 nián -618 nián )

唐(618年-907年)Tang

tánɡ ( 618 nián -907 nián )

宋(960年-1127年)Song

北宋 Northern Song

南宋 Southern Song

sònɡ ( 960 nián -1127 nián )

běi sònɡ

nán sònɡ

元(1271年建立)Yuan

yuán ( 1271 nián jiàn lì )

明(1368年-1644年)Ming

mínɡ ( 1368 nián -1644 nián )

清(1636年-1911年)Qing

qīnɡ ( 1636 nián -1911 nián )

3. 公元前841年,周平王东迁洛邑,中国有了准确纪年的开始

Accurate dating in China history began in 841BC, since the king Zhoupingwang moved the capital to Luoyi

ɡōnɡ yuán qián 841 nián ,zhōu pínɡ wánɡ dōnɡ qiān luò yì,zhōnɡ ɡuó yǒu le

zhǔn què jì nián de kāi shǐ

4. 秦朝是中国第一个封建统一的国家

The Qin Dynasty is the first Chinese feudal unified country

qín cháo shì zhōnɡ ɡuó dì yí ɡè fēnɡ jiàn tǒnɡ yī de ɡuó jiā

秦始皇统一中国Qin Shihuang unified China

qín shǐ huánɡ tǒnɡ yī zhōnɡ ɡuó

实行郡县制 Implementation of the system of prefectures and counties

shí xínɡ jùn xiàn zhì

统一文字、货币、度量衡

unified the characters、currency、weights and measures

tǒnɡ yī wén zì 、 huò bì 、 dù liánɡ hénɡ

5. 唐朝出现了中国历史上唯一的女皇帝:武则天

In Tang dynasty, the only female emperor in China history came out

tánɡ cháo chū xiàn le zhōnɡ ɡuó lì shǐ shànɡ wéi yī de nǚ huánɡ dì :wǔ zé tiān

6. 成吉思汗远征Gen Gi Khan expedition

chénɡ jí sī hán yuǎn zhēnɡ

7. 1912年,中华民国政府成立,孙中山当选第一任总统

In 1912, the government of the Republic of China was founded; Sun Zhongshan was elected the first president (Sun Yat-sen)

1912 nián, zhōnɡhuá mínɡuó zhènɡfǔ chénɡlì,sūn zhōnɡ shān dānɡxuǎn dìyí rèn

zǒnɡ tǒnɡ

8. 1949年10月1日,中华人民共和国成立

The People’s Republic of China was founded in Oct. 1, 1949

1949 nián 10 yuè 1 rì,zhōnɡ huá rén mín ɡònɡ hé ɡuó chénɡ lì

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三 姓氏文化 Surname Culture (sān xìnɡ shì wén huà)

1.“女”字旁

Ever thought why the Chinese character for surname is formed by a feminine character?

“ nǚ ” zì pánɡ

母系氏族社会 matriarchal society

mǔ xì shì zú shè hu

父系氏族社会 patriarchal society

fù xì shì zú shè huì

2.中国古人的姓名:姓、名、字、号,如唐朝诗人李白,姓李,名白,字太白,号青莲居士

The ancient Chinese name included 4 parts: family name, given name, zi and hao. For example, the famous poet in tang dynasty Libai, “li” is his family name, bai is his given name, and his zi is “taibai”, his “hao” is “qinglian jushi”.

(In ancient China, young man reaching the age of 20 and girls when they are going to marry, they will get a “biao zi4”. This is his or her formal name when they officially join the society. Literati and people who have a social position may have a “hao”.)

zhōnɡ ɡuó ɡǔ rén de xìnɡ mínɡ :xìnɡ、mínɡ 、zì 、hào ,rú tánɡ cháo shī rén Lǐbái ,xìnɡ lǐ ,mínɡ bái ,zì tài bái ,hào qīnɡ lián jū shì。

3.《百家姓》the book of family names.

李姓为最大姓 the surname “ li ” is the biggest surname in China now

《 bǎi jiā xìnɡ 》

lǐ xìnɡ wéi zuì dà xìnɡ

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四 文字 Chinese Characters

sì wén zì

1. 传说 legend

chuán shuō

(1)伏羲发明说 Fuxi invented Chinese characters

(2)神农创造说(教民稼穑,teaching people to sow and reap; 结绳记事 knotting note)

Shennong created Chinese characters

(3)皇帝史官仓颉造字说

Huang Di’s histographer Cangjie created the characters

( 1 ) fú xī fā mínɡ shuō

( 2 ) shén nónɡ chuànɡ zào shuō ( jiāo mín jià sè , jié shénɡ jì shì )

( 3 ) huánɡ dì shǐ ɡuān cānɡ jié zào zì shuō

2.汉字演变The evolution of Chinese characters

hàn zì yǎn biàn

evolution of chinese characters

(1)甲骨文inscriptions of oracle bones

jiǎ ɡǔ wén

chinese oracle bone turtle

(2)金文inscriptions on ancient bronze objects

jīn wén

chinese oracle bone bronze

(3)篆书seal character

大篆Big seal characters

小篆a style of calligraphy, adopted in the Qin Dynasty for the purpose of standardizing the script

zhuàn shū

dà zhuàn

xiǎo zhuàn

seal character 1        seal character 2

(4)隶书official script, an ancient style of calligraphy current in the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D.220)

lì shū

li shu

(5)楷书 standard script of handwriting

kǎi shū

standard script writing

(6)草书characters executed swiftly and with strokes flowing together

cǎo shū

cao shu   cao shu 2

(7)行书semi cursive script

xínɡ shū

semi cursive script

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汉字结构 Construction of Characters (hàn zì jié ɡòu)

六书:the six categories of Chinese characters:

Self-explanatory characters, pictographs, pictophonetic characters, associative compounds, mutually explanatory characters and phonetic loan characters

liù shū

(1)象形 Pictographic characters or pictographs, e.g. 日 (sun) and 月 (moon)

xiànɡ xínɡ

liu shu 2

(2)会意 Associative compounds

huì yì

(3) 指事 The indicative characters

zhǐ shì

zhi shi

(4)形声A pictographic element and a phonetic element combine to form a pictophonetic character

xínɡ shēnɡ

(5)转注Synonymous words

zhuǎn zhù

(6)假借Phonetic loan characters

jiǎ jiè

4. 繁体字和简体字

Traditional style and simplified style

fán tǐ zì hé jiǎn tǐ zì

五 诸子百家 The Hundred Schools of Thought

wǔ zhū zǐ bǎi jiā

先秦时代思想家 philosophers of the Pre-Qin Era

xiān qín shí dài sī xiǎnɡ jiā

1.儒家 Confucian

rú jiā

诗书礼乐 poetry and music

shī shū lǐ yuè

仁义礼智信

Benevolence\ Righteousness \manners, the practice of art\ wisdom\ credit

rén yì lǐ zhì xìn

修身齐家治国平天下

self-cultivating;family-regulating;state-ordering;The land great governed

xiū shēn \qí jiā \zhì ɡuó \pínɡ tiān xià

中庸 golden mean

zhōnɡ yōnɡ

积极入世 join the political affairs

jī jí rù shì

(1)孔子(公元前551年-前479年) 思想家、教育家

Confucius (ca.551 BC – 479 BC) philosopher, educator

kǒnɡ zǐ( ɡōnɡ yuán qián 551 nián – qián 479 nián )sī xiǎnɡ jiā 、jiào yù jiā

有教无类provide education for all people without discrimination

yǒu jiào wú lèi

弟子三千,贤者七十二人The three thousand disciples, sage seventy-two

dì zǐ sān qiān , xián zhě qī shí èr rén

仁:一切美德 “Ren”: Of all the virtues

rén : yì qiè měi dé

(2)孟子(约公元前385年-前304年),是孔子的孙子子思的学生

Mencius (ca. 385 BC – 304 BC), the student of Confucius’ grandson Zisi

mènɡ zǐ( yuē ɡōnɡ yuán qián 385 nián – qián 304 nián ) ,shì kǒnɡ zǐ de sūn zi zǐ sī de xué shenɡ

性善论theory of original goodness of human nature

xìnɡ shàn lùn

仁政 benevolent governance

rén zhènɡ

(3)荀子(约公元前313年-前238年)Xunzi (ca. 313 BC – 238 BC)

xún zǐ ( yuē ɡōnɡ yuán qián 313 nián – qián 238 nián )

性恶论 theory of original evil of human nature

xìnɡ è lùn

《劝学篇》,

强调后天教育的作用Stress the role of Education after birth

《 quàn xué piān 》 , qiánɡ diào hòu tiān jiào yù de zuò yònɡ

2.道家 Taoist

dào jiā

消极避世Negative masquerade

无为而治govern by doing nothing that goes against nature

顺乎天然 fallow the nature

xiāo jí bì shì

wú wéi ér zhì

shùn hū tiān rán

(1)老子(约公元前571年-前472年),Laozi (ca. 571 BC – 472 BC)

lǎo zi(yuē ɡōnɡ yuán qián 571 nián – qián 472 nián ),Laozi (ca. 571 BC – 472 BC)

无为而治govern by doing nothing that goes against nature

《道德经》[Dao De Jing] of Laozi

“道” Tao, the Way of Nature which cannot be given a name

wú wéi ér zhì

《 dào dé jīnɡ 》

“ dào ”

(2)庄子(约公元前369年-前286年)Zhuangzi (ca. 369 BC – 286 BC)

zhuānɡ zi ( yuē ɡōnɡ yuán qián 369 nián – qián 286 nián )

自然无为 calm and content himself of nature

无用之用 the great use of uselessness

zì rán wú wéi

wú yònɡ zhī yònɡ

相濡以沫,不如相忘于江湖

It should be better to forget each other than helping each other when both are in humble circumstances

xiānɡ rú yǐ mò , bù rú xiānɡ wànɡ yú jiānɡ hú

“子非鱼,安知鱼之乐?”

“子非我,安知我不知鱼之乐?”

–You are not the fish, how could you know its happiness?

–You are not me, how could you know that I don’t know the fish’s happiness?

“ zǐ fēi yú , ān zhī yú zhī lè ?

zǐ fēi wǒ , ān zhī wǒ bù zhī yú zhī lè ? ”

庄周梦蝴蝶 Zhuangzi dreamed the butterfly

zhuānɡ zhōu mènɡ hú dié

坐忘、修身养性 Period, self-cultivation

zuò wànɡ 、 xiū shēn yǎnɡ xìnɡ

3.墨家 moist

mò jiā

兼爱、非攻、非命 love\ no attack\no destiny

jiān ài 、 fēi ɡōnɡ 、 fēi mìnɡ

墨子(约公元前468年-前376年)Mozi (ca. 468 BC – 376 BC)

mò zǐ ( yuē ɡōnɡ yuán qián 468 nián – qián 376 nián )

4. 法家 Legalist school

fǎ jiā

法 law

术 tactics

势 power

shù

shì

韩非子(约公元前280年-前233年)Han Feizi (ca. 280 BC – 233 BC)

hán fēi zǐ ( yuē ɡōnɡ yuán qián 280 nián – qián 233 nián )

5. 汉代经学Study of Confucian classics in Han Dynasty

hàn dài jīnɡ xué

魏晋玄学Metaphysics in the Wei and Jin Dynasties

wèi jìn xuán xué

宋明理学Song Ming Neo-Confucianism

sònɡ mínɡ lǐ xué

清代朴学The textology of the Qing Dynasty

qīnɡ dài pǔ xué

六 宗教信仰 Religious Belief

liù zōnɡ jiào xìn yǎnɡ

The main religions are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism.

1. 多神信仰 Polytheism

duō shén xìn yǎnɡ

2. 三大崇拜 Three worships

sān dà chónɡ bài

天地 heaven and earth

生之本the fundamental of existence

祖先 ancestors

类之本the fundamental of being a human

君师 kings and masters

治之本the fundamental of managing the country

tiān dì shēnɡ zhī běn

zǔ xiān lèi zhī běn

jūn shī zhì zhī běn

师:(文武)孔子和关公 masters, refer to Confucius and Guan Gong

shī : ( wén wǔ ) kǒnɡ zǐ hé ɡuān ɡōnɡ

图腾 totem

家祠 Ancestral temple, 帝王庙 imperial temple

tú ténɡ

jiā cí,dì wánɡ miào

3. 西汉末年,佛教传入中国 Buddhism was introduced into china at the end of The Western Han Dynasty

xī hàn mò nián , fó jiào chuán rù zhōnɡ ɡuó

《西游记》A journey to the West

《 xī yóu jì 》

4. 东汉中叶, 道教产生 Taoist appeared in the middle of the Eastern Han Dynasty

dōnɡ hàn zhōnɡ yè, dào jiào chǎn shēnɡ

民间信仰 folk belief

迷信 superstition

得道长生 immortality by great achievements in the Tao

炼金术alchemy

mín jiān xìn yǎnɡ

mí xìn

dé dào chánɡ shēnɡ

liàn jīn shù

5. 唐代, 伊斯兰教传入Islam was introduced into China in Tang Dynasty

tánɡ dài, yī sī lán jiào chuán rù

6. 唐贞观年间, 基督教传入 Christianity was introduced into China during the “Zhen Guan” period of Tang Dynasty

tánɡ zhēn ɡuān nián jiān, jī dū jiào chuán rù

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七 古代教育 Ancient Education (qī ɡǔ dài jiào yù)

1. 六艺 the six skills

礼:规章仪式 etiquette

乐:音乐舞蹈 dance and music

射:射箭shoot an arrow

御:骑马驾车horse riding and driving

书:历史 history

数:数学 math

liù yì

lǐ : ɡuī zhānɡ yí shì

yuè : yīn yuè wǔ dǎo

shè : shè jiàn

yù : qí mǎ jià chē

shū : lì shǐ

shù : shù xué

2. 大学之道,在明明德,在亲民,在止于至善。

The meaning of “The Great Learning” is in the family, in people, in the aim at absolute perfection

dà xué zhī dào , zài mínɡ mínɡ dé , zài qīn mín , zài zhǐ yú zhì shàn 。

3. 重农、重教 pay attention to agriculture and education

zhònɡ nónɡ 、 zhònɡ jiào

4. 科举取士imperial examination to select talents

kē jǔ qǔ shì

四书五经: [sì shū wǔ jīng]

The Four Books (The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean, The Confucian Analects, and The Works of Mencius) and The Five Classics (The Book of Songs, The Book of History, The Book of Changes, The Book of Rites and The Spring and Autumn Annals)

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八 四大发明 The Four Great Inventions

bā sì dà fā mínɡ

1. 指南针 compass

指南针的原型是战国时期的司南,北宋有指南针的记载.

The prototype of the compass is the “Si Nan”(means pointing to south) in the warring states period, the compass is recorded in the documents written in the Northern Song Dynasty.

zhǐ nán zhēn

zhǐ nán zhēn de yuán xínɡ shì zhàn ɡuó shí qī de sī nán,běi sònɡ yǒu zhǐ nán

zhēn de jì zǎi.

2. 火药fire powder

发明于隋唐时期 the fire powder was invented during the Sui-Tang Dynasties period.

huǒ yào

fā mínɡ yú suí tánɡ shí qī

3. 造纸术paper-making

公元前2 世纪的西汉初年已经出现了纸,东汉蔡伦在公元105年改进造纸术,成功地造出了植物纤维纸。

As early as the 2nd Century BC, that was the beginning of the Western Han, the paper appeared. In the year 105 AD, Cai Lun,who lived in the Eastern Han, had improved the technology of making paper, and produced the plant fiber paper successfully.

zào zhǐ shù

ɡōnɡ yuán qián 2 shì jì de xī hàn chū nián yǐ jīnɡ chū xiàn le zhǐ,dōnɡ hàn

cài lún zài ɡōnɡ yuán 105 nián ɡǎi jìn zào zhǐ shù,chénɡ ɡōnɡ de zào chū le

zhí wù xiān wéi zhǐ 。

4. 活字印刷术movable type printing

活字印刷书源于隋朝时候的雕版印刷,北宋毕升在公元1004年至1048年间发明了胶泥活字印刷术

The movable type printing was originated from the block printing of Sui Dynasty. Bi Sheng, who lived in the Northern Song, first invented movable type printing between years 1004-1048.

huó zì yìn shuā shù

huó zì yìn shuā shù yuán yú suí cháo shí hou de diāo bǎn yìn shuā,běi sònɡ bì

shēnɡ zài ɡōnɡ yuán 1004 nián zhì 1048 nián jiān fā mínɡ le jiāo ní huó zì

yìn shuā shù。

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九 传统习俗 Traditional Customs

jiǔ chuán tǒnɡ xí sú

1.十二生肖 12 zodiac symbols

shí èr shēnɡ xiāo

鼠 牛 虎

Rat  1984年 Ox  1985年 Tiger  1986年

兔 龙 蛇

Rabbit  1987年  Dragon   1988年  Snake   1989年

马 羊 猴

Horse   1990年  Goat   1991年  Monkey   1992年

鸡 狗 猪

Rooster   1993年  Dog   1994年  Pig   1995年

shǔ niú hǔ

tù lónɡ shé

mǎ yánɡ hóu

jī ɡǒu zhū

2. 吉祥物 mascot

jí xiánɡ wù

ji xiang wu

龙 dragon,lónɡ

凤 phoenix,fènɡ

龟 turtle,ɡuī

麟 kylin, unicorn

鹿身、牛尾、鱼鳞、独角,象征和平和美德

Kylin is an animal created by imagination, with deer body, ox tail, fish scales and a unicorn, unicorn is the symbol of peace and virtue.

lín

lù shēn 、 niú wěi 、 yú lín 、 dú jiǎo , xiànɡ zhēnɡ hé pínɡ hé měi dé

kylin

3. 颜色:红黄为尊,黑白为贬

Red and yellow colors are respected colors, while black and white are not good ones.

According to the Chinese tradition and customs, civil activities must use a cheerful red color.

yán sè : hónɡ huánɡ wéi zūn , hēi bái wéi biǎn

五行对应的颜色

金——白色 white color 木——青色 green color

水——黑色 black color 火——赤色 red color

土——黄色 yellow color

wǔ xínɡ duì yìnɡ de yán sè

jīn — bái sè mù — qīnɡ sè

shuǐ — hēi sè huǒ — chì sè

tǔ — huánɡ sè

4. 方位:东、南为尊 east and south are the respected directions

fānɡ wèi : dōnɡ 、 nán wéi zūn

5. 五行 the five elements

金 木 水 火 土

Metal、wood、water、fire、earth

wǔ xínɡ

jīn mù shuǐ huǒ tǔ

五行对应的数理

金——一 one 木——二 two

水——三 three 火——四 four

土——五 five

wǔ xínɡ duì yìnɡ de shù lǐ

jīn — yī mù — èr

shuǐ — sān huǒ — sì

tǔ — wǔ

五行对应的方向

金——西方 west 木——东方 east

水——北方 north 火——南方 south

土——中央 middle

wǔ xínɡ duì yìnɡ de fānɡ xiànɡ

jīn — xī fānɡ mù — dōnɡ fānɡ

shuǐ — běi fānɡ huǒ — nán fānɡ

tǔ — zhōnɡ yānɡ

五行对应的天气

金——燥 dry 木——风 windy

水——寒 cold 火——暑 hot

土——湿 wet

wǔ xínɡ duì yìnɡ de tiān qì

jīn — zào mù — fēnɡ

shuǐ — hán huǒ — shǔ

tǔ – shī

五行相生相克 mutual promotion and restraint between the five elements

wǔ xínɡ xiānɡ shēnɡ xiānɡ kè

mutual promotion and restraint between the five elements

.

五行和阴阳的关系 relationship between “Yin”& “Yang” and the five elements

水:太阴极限状态 water: status of limit of “Tai Yin”

木:阴消阳长状态 wood: status of “Yin declining when Yang growing”

火:太阳极限状态fire: status of limit of “Tai Yang”

土:阴阳平衡状态 earth: status of balance between “Yin” and “Yang”

金:阳消阴长状态 metal: status of “Yang declining when Yin growing”

wǔ xínɡ hé yīn yánɡ de ɡuān xi

shuǐ : tài yīn jí xiàn zhuànɡ tài

mù : yīn xiāo yánɡ zhǎnɡ zhuànɡ tài

huǒ : tài yánɡ jí xiàn zhuànɡ tài

tǔ : yīn yánɡ pínɡ hénɡ zhuànɡ tài

jīn : yánɡ xiāo yīn zhǎnɡ zhuànɡ tài

五行与时辰

时辰是中国古代的一种计时方法,24小时共分为12个时辰,从晚上11点开始,与12属相相对应:

“Shichen” is one kind of Chinese ancient time method, 24 hours are divided into 12 shichen, starts from 11 p.m., and each shichen is corresponding to one sign of the zodiac.

wǔ xínɡ yǔ shí chén

shí chén shì zhōnɡ ɡuó ɡǔ dài de yì zhǒnɡ jì shí fānɡ fǎ,24 xiǎo shí ɡònɡ fēn

wéi 12 ɡè shí chén,cónɡ wǎn shɑnɡ 11 diǎn kāi shǐ,yǔ 12 shǔ xiànɡ xiānɡ duì

yìnɡ :

十二时辰:子、丑、寅、卯、辰、巳、午、未、申、酉、戌、亥;

12 shichen: zi, chou, yin, mao, chen, si, wu, wei, shen, you, xu, hai.

shí èr shí chén : zǐ 、 chǒu 、 yín 、 mǎo 、 chén 、 sì 、 wǔ 、 wèi 、 shēn 、 yǒu 、 xū 、 hài ;

按五行来说: According to the five elements,

àn wǔ xínɡ lái shuō :

寅、卯、辰属木,主宰春季,代表东方;

yin\mao\chen belong to wood, dominate spring, and stand for the east;

yín 、 mǎo 、 chén shǔ mù , zhǔ zǎi chūn jì , dài biǎo dōnɡ fānɡ ;

巳、午、未属火,主宰夏季,代表南方;

si\wu\wei belong to fire, dominate summer, and stand for the south;

sì 、 wǔ 、 wèi shǔ huǒ , zhǔ zǎi xià jì , dài biǎo nán fānɡ ;

申、酉、戊属金,主宰秋季,代表西方;

shen\you\xu belong to metal, dominate autumn, and stand for the west;

shēn 、 yǒu 、 wù shǔ jīn , zhǔ zǎi qiū jì , dài biǎo xī fānɡ ;

亥、子、丑属水,主宰冬季,代表北方;

hai\zi\chou belong to water, dominate winter, and stand for the north.

hài 、 zǐ 、 chǒu shǔ shuǐ , zhǔ zǎi dōnɡ jì , dài biǎo běi fānɡ ;

辰、未、戌、丑单个而言都属土,代表中方,主宰四季最后一个月。

Individually, chen\wei\xu\chou belong to earth, stand for center, and dominate the last month of the year

chén、wèi、xū、chǒu dān ɡè ér yán dōu shǔ tǔ,dài biǎo zhōnɡ fānɡ,zhǔ zǎi sì

jì zuì hòu yí ɡè yuè 。

~

十 传统节日 Traditional Festivals (shí chuán tǒnɡ jié rì)

1. 24节气,根据农事活动制定 The 24 Solar Terms, according to agricultural production

24 jié qi , ɡēn jù nónɡ shì huó dònɡ zhì dìnɡ

he 24 Solar Terms, according to agricultural production

立春 Spring begins. lì chūn

雨水 The rains. yǔ shuǐ

惊蛰 Insects awaken. jīnɡ zhé

春分 Vernal Equinox. chūn fēn

清明 Clear and bright. qīnɡ mínɡ

谷雨 Grain rain. ɡǔ yǔ

立夏 Summer begins. lì xià

小满 Grain buds. xiǎo mǎn

芒种 Grain in ear. mánɡ zhǒnɡ

夏至 Summer solstice. xià zhì

小暑 Slight heat. xiǎo shǔ

大暑 Great heat. dà shǔ

立秋 Autumn begins. lì qiū

处暑 Stopping the heat. chǔ shǔ

白露 White dews. bái lù

秋分 Autumn Equinox. qiū fēn

寒露 Cold dews. hán lù

霜降 Hoar-frost falls. shuānɡ jiànɡ

立冬 Winter begins. lì dōnɡ

小雪 Light snow. xiǎo xuě

大雪 Heavy snow. dà xuě

冬至 Winter Solstice. dōnɡ zhì

小寒 Slight cold. xiǎo hán

大寒 Great cold. dà hán

2.传统节日

(1)春节 the Spring Festival ( New Year’s Day of the Chinese lunar calendar) 农历正月初一 1st of the first month of the lunar year

chuán tǒnɡ jié rì

chūn jié, nónɡ lì zhēnɡ yuè chū yī

(2)元宵节(灯节) the Lantern Festival

农历正月十五15th of the first month of the lunar year

yuán xiāo jié ( dēnɡ jié ) ,nónɡ lì zhēnɡ yuè shí wǔ

(3)清明节 the Qing Ming Festival

四月五日前后about 5th of April of the lunar year

qīnɡ mínɡ jié ,sì yuè wǔ rì qián hòu

4)端午节 the Dragon-Boat Festival

农历五月初五 5th of May of the lunar year

duān wǔ jié ,nónɡ lì wǔ yuè chū wǔ

(5)中秋节 the Mid-Autumn Festival(the Moon Festival)

农历八月十五15th of August of the lunar year

zhōnɡ qiū jié ,nónɡ lì bá yuè shí wǔ

(6)重阳节 the Double Ninth Festival

农历九月初九9th of September of the lunar year

chónɡ yánɡ jié ,nónɡ lì jiǔ yuè chū jiǔ

(7)除夕New Year’s Eve

农历十二月三十日the last eve of the lunar year

chú xī,nónɡ lì shí èr yuè sān shí rì

.

十一 中医 Chinese Medicine (shí yī zhōnɡ yī)

1.医药 Chinese herbal medicine

yī yào

2.针灸 acupuncture

经络 acupuncture channels

穴位 acupuncture points

zhēn jiǔ

jīnɡ luò

xué wèi

3. 中医和五行的关系 relationship between Chinese medicine and the five elements

五行对应的身体部位 five elements with different boby parts

zhōnɡ yī hé wǔ xínɡ de ɡuān xi

wǔ xínɡ duì yìnɡ de shēn tǐ bù wèi

金——皮、鼻孔、肺脏、大肠。 Metal-skin, nose, lungs,big intestinal

木——筋、眼睛、肝、胆。 Wood-band, eye, liver, gall

水——骨、耳朵、肾脏、膀胱。 Water-bone, ear, kidney, bladder

火——脉、舌头、心脏、小肠。 Fire-pulse, tongue, heart, small intestine

土——肉、嘴巴、脾脏、胃。 Earth-meat, mouth, spleen, stomach

jīn — pí 、 bí kǒnɡ 、 fèi zànɡ 、 dà chánɡ 。

mù — jīn 、 yǎn jinɡ 、 ɡān 、 dǎn 。

shuǐ — ɡǔ 、 ěr duo 、 shèn zànɡ 、 pánɡ ɡuānɡ 。

huǒ — mài 、 shé tou 、 xīn zànɡ 、 xiǎo chánɡ 。

tǔ — ròu 、 zuǐ bɑ 、 pí zànɡ、 wèi 。

The five elements (metal, wood, water, fire and earth, held by the ancients to compose the physical universe and later used in traditional Chinese medicine to explain various physiological and pathological phenomena)

中医和五行的关系 relationship between Chinese medicine and the five elements

十二 天干地支纪年法 Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches Calendar (shí èr tiān ɡān dì zhī jì nián fǎ)

1.十天干:10 Heavenly stems

shí tiān ɡān

甲(jiǎ)、乙(yǐ)、丙(bǐng)、丁(dīng)、戊(wù)、

己(jǐ)、庚(gēng)、辛(xīn)、壬(rén)、癸(guǐ);

其中甲、丙、戊、庚、壬为阳干,乙、丁、己、辛、癸为阴干。

Jia\bing\wu\geng\ren are“Yang”stems; while yi\ding\ji\xin\gui are “Yin”stems

qí zhōnɡ jiǎ、bǐnɡ、wù、ɡēnɡ、rén wéi yánɡ ɡān ,yǐ、dīnɡ、jǐ、xīn 、ɡuǐ wéi

yīn ɡān 。

2.十二地支:12 Earthly Branches

shí èr dì zhī

子(zǐ)、丑(chǒu)、寅(yín)、卯(mǎo)、辰(chén)、巳(sì)、

午(wǔ)、未(wèi)、申(shēn)、酉(yǒu)、戌(xū)、亥(hài)。

其中子、寅、辰、午、申、戌为阳支,丑、卯、巳、未、酉、亥为阴支.

Zi\yin\chen\wu\shen\xu are “Yang”branches, while chou\mao\si\wei\you\hai are “Yin”branches.

qí zhōnɡ zǐ 、 yín 、 chén 、 wǔ 、 shēn 、 xū wéi yánɡ zhī , chǒu 、 mǎo 、sì 、 wèi 、 yǒu 、 hài wéi yīn zhī.

(注:十二地支对应十二生肖——子:鼠;丑:牛;寅:虎;卯:兔;辰:龙;巳:蛇; 午:马;未:羊;申:猴;酉:鸡;戌:狗;亥:猪。)

( zhù : shí èr dì zhī duì yìnɡ shí èr shēnɡ xiāo — zǐ : shǔ ; chǒu : niú ; yín : hǔ ; mǎo : tù ; chén : lónɡ ; sì : shé ; wǔ : mǎ ; wèi: yánɡ ; shēn : hóu ; yǒu : jī ; xū : ɡǒu ; hài : zhū 。 )

天干地支纪年:Heavenly stems and Earthly Branches calendar

tiān ɡān dì zhī jì nián

六十甲子

甲子

乙丑

丙寅

丁卯

戊辰

己巳

庚午

辛未

壬申

癸酉

甲戌

乙亥

丙子

丁丑

戊寅

己卯

庚辰

辛巳

壬午

癸未

甲申

乙酉

丙戌

丁亥

戊子

己丑

庚寅

辛卯

壬辰

癸巳

甲午

乙未

丙申

丁酉

戊戌

己亥

庚子

辛丑

壬寅

癸卯

甲辰

乙巳

丙午

丁未

戊申

己酉

庚戌

辛亥

壬子

癸丑

甲寅

乙卯

丙辰

丁巳

戊午

己未

庚申

辛酉

壬戌

癸亥

天干地支产生在炎黄时期,天干地支纪年法以立春作为一年的开始而不是以农历正月初一。

Heavenly stems and Earthly Branches originated during the “Yan Di” and “Huang Di” period, the beginning of the year is “li chun” (Spring Begins), not the first day of the first month in lunar calendar.

tiān ɡān dì zhī chǎn shēnɡ zài yán huánɡ shí qī,tiān ɡān dì zhī jì nián fǎ yǐ lì chūn zuò wéi yì nián de kāi shǐ ér bú shì yǐ nónɡ lì zhēnɡ yuè chū yī 。

chinese calender

天干地支简称“干支”。“辞源”里说,“干支”取义于树木的“干枝”。

“Ganzhi” is shot of “Heavenly stems and Earthly Branches ”. According to the ancient dictionary 《Ci Yuan》, “Ganzhi” means the stem and branch of the tree.

tiān ɡān dì zhī jiǎn chēnɡ“ɡān zhī” 。“cí yuán” lǐ shuō ,“ɡān zhī”qǔ yì yú

shù mù de “ ɡān zhī ” 。

3.生肖对应的时辰:Hours according to the zodiac (one Chinese hour has 120 mins.)

子(鼠)时(23点~01点) 丑(牛)时(01点~03点)

寅(虎)时(03点~05点) 卯(兔)时(05点~07点)

辰(龙)时(07点~09点) 巳(蛇)时(09点~11点)

午(马)时(11点~13点) 未(羊)时(13点~15点)

申(猴)时(15点~17点) 酉(鸡)时(17点~19点)

戌(狗)时(19点~21点) 亥(猪)时(21点~23点)

shēnɡ xiāo duì yìnɡ de shí chén :

zǐ(shǔ)shí(23 diǎn ~01 diǎn) chǒu(niú)shí(01 diǎn ~03 diǎn)

yín(hǔ)shí(03 diǎn ~05 diǎn) mǎo(tù)shí(05 diǎn ~07 diǎn)

chén(lónɡ)shí(07 diǎn ~09 diǎn) sì(shé)shí(09 diǎn ~11 diǎn)

wǔ(mǎ)shí(11 diǎn ~13 diǎn) wèi(yánɡ)shí(13 diǎn ~15 diǎn)

shēn(hóu)shí(15 diǎn ~17 diǎn) yǒu(jī)shí(17 diǎn ~19 diǎn)

xū(ɡǒu)shí(19 diǎn ~21 diǎn) hài(zhū)shí(21 diǎn ~23 diǎn)

chinese hours

~

十三 八卦 The Eight Trigrams (shí sān bā ɡuà)

八卦源于中国古代对基本的宇宙生成、相应日月的地球自转(阴阳)关系、农业社会和人生哲学互相结合的观念。最原始资料来源为西周的易经,内容有六十四卦,但没有图像。《易传》记录“易有太极,是生两仪。两仪生四象,四象生八卦。”故近代考证认为所谓太极即宇宙,两仪指天地,四象就是四季天象;如长日照的夏季称太阳,短日照的冬季称太阴,春是少阳,秋是少阴,而八卦再分三爻,自然是指廿四节气。表面上“太极八卦图”明显是指地球自转一周年而复始。

The eight trigrams originated from ancient Chinese ideas about basic universe formation, corresponding to the rotation of the earth ( Yin and Yang ), agricultural society and philosophy of life combine with each other. The source material is from the book《Yi Jing》of the Western Zhou Dynasty, there are sixty-four trigrams, but no image. It has record as “Yi has Tai ji, tai ji produces two ‘yi’, two yi produces

Four ‘xiang’, and four ‘xiang’ produces eight‘gua’”.The modern textual criticism that the so-called Taiji is the cosmic, “liang yi” means heaven and earth, and “si xiang” is the images of four seasons, e.g. long sunshine summer called “tai yang”, while short-day winter called “tai yin”. Spring is lesser yang, while autumn is the lesser Yin. Each trigram is divided into three lines, absolutely means the 24 solar terms. On the surface, the “Taiji nosy map” obviously refers to the rotation of the earth then goes round and begins again.

bā ɡuà yuán yú zhōnɡ ɡuó ɡǔ dài duì jī běn de yǔ zhòu shēnɡ chénɡ、xiānɡ

yīnɡ rì yuè de dì qiú zì zhuàn ( yīn yánɡ ) ɡuān xi 、 nónɡ yè shè huì hé

rén shēnɡ zhé xué hù xiānɡ jié hé de ɡuān niàn 。 zuì yuán shǐ zī liào lái

yuán wéi xī zhōu de yì jīnɡ , nèi rónɡ yǒu liù shí sì ɡuà , dàn méi yǒu tú

xiànɡ 。《yì zhuàn 》 jì lù “ yì yǒu tài jí , shì shēnɡ liǎnɡ yí 。 liǎnɡ yí

shēnɡ sì xiànɡ, sì xiànɡ shēnɡ bā ɡuà 。 ” ɡù jìn dài kǎo zhènɡ rèn wéi suǒ

wèi tài jí jí yǔ zhòu , liǎnɡ yí zhǐ tiān dì , sì xiànɡ jiù shì sì jì tiān

xiànɡ ; rú chánɡ rì zhào de xià jì chēnɡ tài yánɡ , duǎn rì zhào de dōnɡ

jì chēnɡ tài yīn ,chūn shì shào yánɡ , qiū shì shào yīn , ér bā ɡuà zài

fēn sān yáo , zì rán shì zhǐ niàn sì jié qi 。 biǎo miàn shànɡ “ tài jí bā

ɡuà tú ” mínɡ xiǎn shì zhǐ dì qiú zì zhuàn yì zhōu nián ér fù shǐ 。

.

yinyang

太极图:白上黑下,顺时针方向

Tai Chi diagram: white’s up and black’s down, a clockwise direction

tài jí tú : bái shànɡ hēi xià , shùn shí zhēn fānɡ xiànɡ

.

8 trigrams

太极八卦图

Taiji nosy map

The Eight Trigrams (eight combinations of three whole or broken lines formerly used in divination)

tài jí bā ɡuà tú

八卦代表八种基本物象: 乾为天, 坤为地, 震为雷, 巽为风, 艮为山, 兑为泽, 坎为水, 离为火, 总称为经卦, 由八个经卦中的两个为一组的排列, 则构成六十四卦。

The eight trigrams represent eight basic forms: qian-heaven, Kun-earth, zhen-thunder,xun-wind,gen-hill,dui-swamp,kan-water,li-fire. Arbitrary combinations of two of the eight trigrams form the sixty-four trigrams.

bā ɡuà dài biǎo bā zhǒnɡ jī běn wù xiànɡ : qián wéi tiān, kūn wéi dì, zhèn

wéi léi, xùn wéi fēnɡ, ɡèn wéi shān, duì wéi zé, kǎn wéi shuǐ, lí wéi huǒ,

zǒnɡ chēnɡ wéi jīnɡ ɡuà, yóu bā ɡè jīnɡ ɡuà zhōnɡ de liǎnɡ ɡè wéi yì zǔ de pái liè, zé ɡòu chénɡ liù shí sì ɡuà 。

eight trigrams represent eight basic forms

八卦所对应的五行 the eight trigrams corresponds to the five elements:

金-乾、兑; 乾为天,兑为泽 jin—qian\dui, qian is heaven, dui is swamp;

木-震、巽; 震为雷,巽为风 mu—zhen\xun, zhen is thunder,xun is wind;

土-坤、艮; 坤为地,艮为山 tu—kun\gen, kun is earth,gen is hill;

水-坎; 坎为水(月亮) shui—kan, kan is water(moon);

火-离; 离为火(太阳) huo—li, li is fire(sun).

bā ɡuà suǒ duì yìnɡ de wǔ xínɡ

jīn – qián 、 duì ; qián wéi tiān , duì wéi zé

mù – zhèn 、 xùn ;zhèn wéi léi , xùn wéi fēnɡ

tǔ – kūn 、 ɡèn ; kūn wéi dì , ɡèn wéi shān

shuǐ – kǎn; kǎn wéi shuǐ ( yuè liɑnɡ )

huǒ – lí;lí wéi huǒ ( tài yánɡ )

八卦分割 eight trigrams segmentation

bā ɡuà fēn ɡē

八卦: 乾 兑 离 震 巽 坎 艮 坤

Eight trigrams: qian\ dui\ li\ zhen\ xun\ kan\ gen\ kun

bā ɡuà : qián duì lí zhèn xùn kǎn ɡèn kūn

四象: 太阳 少阴 少阳 太阴

Four “xiang”: Full Yang\ Lesser Yin\ Lesser Yang\ Full Yin

sì xiànɡ : tài yánɡ shào yīn shào yánɡ tài yīn

两仪: 阳 阴

Two “Yi”: Yang\Yin

liǎnɡ yí : yánɡ yīn

卦名

自然

特性

家人

肢体

动物

方位

季节

阴阳

五行

西北

秋冬间

少女

西

中女

长男

长女

东南

春夏间

中男

少男

东北

冬春间

西南

夏秋间

~

十四 饮食文化 Food Culture (shí sì yǐn shí wén huà)

1. 中华美食的特点The characteristics of Chinese food

zhōnɡ huá měi shí de tè diǎn

风味多样 Flavor variety

四季有别 different from seasons

讲究美感Pay attention to beauty

注重情趣Focus on taste

食医结合Food and medicine are closely linked

fēnɡ wèi duō yànɡ

sì jì yǒu bié

jiǎnɡ jiū měi ɡǎn

zhù zhònɡ qínɡ qù

shí yī jié hé

2. 八大菜系Eight cuisines

川、粤、苏、闽、浙、湘、徽、鲁

The “eight big cuisines of china”:

Sichuan, Guangdong, Suzhou, Fujian, Zhejiang, Zhejiang, Hunan, Anhui, Shandong cuisines

bā dà cài xì

chuān 、 yuè 、 sū 、 mǐn 、 zhè 、 xiānɡ 、 huī 、 lǔ

饮食中心

北方饮食中心:北京

西南饮食中心:有“食在中国,味在成都”称号的成都

西北饮食中心: 西安

东部饮食中心:有“天下美食之都”称号的苏州

南部饮食中心:有“食在广州”称号的广州

Food center:

North Food Center: Beijing

Southwest Food Center: “eat in China, the taste in Chengdu”, Chengdu

Northwest Food Center: Xi’an

Eastern Food Center: “the food capital of world”, Suzhou

Southern Food Center: “eating in Guangzhou”, Guangzhou

yǐn shí zhōnɡ xīn :

běi fānɡ yǐn shí zhōnɡ xīn :běi jīnɡ

xī nán yǐn shí zhōnɡ xīn:yǒu“shí zài zhōnɡ ɡuó ,wèi zài chénɡ dū”chēnɡ hào de chénɡ dū

xī běi yǐn shí zhōnɡ xīn : xī ān

dōnɡ bù yǐn shí zhōnɡ xīn :yǒu“tiān xià měi shí zhī dū”chēnɡ hào de sū zhōu

nán bù yǐn shí zhōnɡ xīn :yǒu “shí zài ɡuǎnɡ zhōu”chēnɡ hào de ɡuǎnɡ zhōu

3. 神奇的筷子Magical chopsticks (shén qí de kuài zi)

chopsticks

筷子,可谓是中国国粹。既轻巧又灵活,在世界各国餐具中独树一帜,被西方人誉为“东方的文明”。中国使用筷子历史可追溯到商代,至少有三千多年的用筷历史。先秦时期称筷子为“挟”,秦汉时期叫“箸”。古人十分讲究忌讳,因“箸”与“住”字谐音,“住”有停止之意,乃不吉利之语,所以就反其意而称之为“筷”。这就是筷子名称的由来。它是反应中国饮食文化的重要组成特色部分。筷子看起来只是非常简单的两根小细棒,但它有挑、拨、夹、拌、扒等功能,且使用方便,价廉物美。筷子也是当今世界上一种独特的餐具。

Chopsticks, it may be said is the quintessence of China. Lightweight and flexible,chopsticks is unique among all table wares of the world. It’s regarded as the “Oriental civilization” by the West. The history of using chopsticks could be traced back to the Shang Dynasty, at least three thousand years. Chopsticks are called as “Jia” during the pre-Qin period. Later in Qin and Han dynasties chopsticks is known as “Zhu”, because “chopsticks” sounds like the word “live”, “live” means stop, which is an unlucky word, so people oppose its idea and make it known as “kuai”(means fast).This is the origin of chopsticks. It is an important component feature of the Chinese diet culture. Chopsticks look very simple with two small sticks, but it has many functions such as pick, clip, mix, grill and others, and it is both convenient and cheap. Chopsticks are unique tableware in today’s world.

kuài zi,kě wèi shì zhōnɡ ɡuó ɡuó cuì。jì qīnɡ qiǎo yòu línɡ huó,zài shì jiè

ɡè ɡuó cān jù zhōnɡ dú shù yí zhì,bèi xī fānɡ rén yù wéi“dōnɡ fānɡ de wén

mínɡ”。zhōnɡ ɡuó shǐ yònɡ kuài zi lì shǐ kě zhuī sù dào shānɡ dài,zhì shǎo yǒu

sān qiān duō nián de yònɡ kuài lì shǐ。xiān qín shí qī chēnɡ kuài zi wéi“jiā”,qín hàn shí qī jiào“zhù”。ɡǔ rén shí fēn jiǎnɡ jiū jì huì,yīn“zhù”yǔ“zhù”

zì xié yīn ,“zhù”yǒu tínɡ zhǐ zhī yì,nǎi bù jí lì zhī yǔ,suǒ yǐ jiù fǎn qí

yì ér chēnɡ zhī wéi“kuài”。zhè jiù shì kuài zi mínɡ chēnɡ de yóu lái。tā shì

fǎn yìnɡ zhōnɡ ɡuó yǐn shí wén huà de zhònɡ yào zǔ chénɡ tè sè bù fen。kuài zi

kàn qǐ lái zhǐ shì fēi chánɡ jiǎn dān de liǎnɡ ɡēn xiǎo xì bànɡ,dàn tā yǒu

tiāo、bō、jiá、bàn、bā děnɡ ɡōnɡ nénɡ,qiě shǐ yònɡ fānɡ biàn,jià lián wù měi。 kuài zi yě shì dānɡ jīn shì jiè shànɡ yì zhǒnɡ dú tè de cān jù。

4. 餐桌礼仪Table manners

cān zhuō lǐ yí

第一,入座的礼仪。先请客人和长者入座。入座时要从椅子左边进入,入座后不要动筷子,更不要弄出什么响声来,也不要起身走动。如果有什么事要向主人打招呼。

First, table manners. Ask the guests or elders to take seats first. When take the seat, take it from the left side, and don’t move chopsticks as soon as you sit down. Don’t make any noise, also do not rise and move. If you have anything to do, just tell the host.

dì yī,rù zuò de lǐ yí。xiān qǐnɡ kè rén hé zhǎnɡ zhě rù zuò。rù zuò shí yào

cónɡ yǐ zi zuǒ biɑn jìn rù,rù zuò hòu bú yào dònɡ kuài zi,ɡènɡ bú yào nònɡ

chū shén me xiǎnɡ shēnɡ lái,yě bú yào qǐ shēn zǒu dònɡ。rú ɡuǒ yǒu shén me shì

yào xiànɡ zhǔ rén dǎ zhāo hu。

第二,进餐时。先请客人、长者动筷子。喝汤时不要出声响。使劲咀嚼脆食物发出很清晰的声音,这种做法是不合礼仪要求的。

Second, when eating, invite the guests or elders to move chopsticks first. Don’t make noises when drinking soup. Some people like chewing food and making clear crisp sound, this is not required by etiquette.

dì èr,jìn cān shí。xiān qǐnɡ kè rén、zhǎnɡ zhě dònɡ kuài zi。hē tānɡ shí bú

yào chū shēnɡ xiǎnɡ。shǐ jìn jǔ jué cuì shí wù fā chū hěn qīnɡ xī de shēnɡ yīn, zhè zhǒnɡ zuò fǎ shì bù hé lǐ yí yāo qiú de。

第三,进餐时不要打嗝,也不要出现其他声音。如果出现打喷嚏等不由自主的声响时,就要说一声“真不好意思”、“对不起”、“请原凉”之类的话以示歉意。

Third, when eating, don’t burp, also don’t make other voices. If sneezingand other phenomenons, should say “sorry” or “please forgive me”.

dì sān,jìn cān shí bú yào dǎ ɡé,yě bú yào chū xiàn qí tā shēnɡ yīn。rú ɡuǒ

chū xiàn dǎ pēn tì děnɡ bù yóu zì zhǔ de shēnɡ xiǎnɡ shí,jiù yào shuō yī shēnɡ“zhēn bù hǎo yì si”、“duì bù qǐ”、“qǐnɡ yuán liánɡ” zhī lèi de huà yǐ shì

qiàn yì 。

第四,如果要给客人或长辈布菜,最好用公筷,也可以把离客人或长辈远的菜肴送到他们跟前。按我们中华民族的习惯,菜是一个一个往上端的。如果同桌有领导、老人、客人的话,每当上来一个新菜时就请他们先动筷子,或着轮流请他们先动筷子,以表示对他们的重视。

Fourth, if you want to give the guests or elders food, best use serving chopsticks, and also can put dishes in front of them who sit far away. According to Chinese custom, food should be put on the table one after another. you should let the leaders,elders, guests to move chopsticks first, or invite them to move chopsticks alternately, to show your attention.

dì sì,rú ɡuǒ yào ɡěi kè rén huò zhǎnɡ bèi bù cài,zuì hǎo yònɡ ɡōnɡ kuài,yě

kě yǐ bǎ lí kè rén huò zhǎnɡ bèi yuǎn de cài yáo sònɡ dào tā men ɡēn qián。àn

wǒ men zhōnɡ huá mín zú de xí ɡuàn,cài shì yí ɡè yí ɡè wǎnɡ shànɡ duān de。rú

ɡuǒ tónɡ zhuō yǒu lǐnɡ dǎo、lǎo rén、kè rén de huà,měi dānɡ shànɡ lái yí ɡè

xīn cài shí jiù qǐnɡ tā men xiān dònɡ kuài zi,huò zhe lún liú qǐnɡ tā men

xiān dònɡ kuài zi,yǐ biǎo shì duì tā men de zhònɡ shì。

第五,吃到鱼头、鱼刺、骨头等物时,不要往外面吐,也不要往地上扔,要慢慢用手拿到自己的碟子里,或放在紧靠自己餐桌边或放在事先准备好的纸上。

Fifth, when eat fish bone and other such things, don’t spit it outside, don’t throw it to the floor, take it slowly by hand and put it in your dish, or place it on the prepared paper close to your seat.

dì wǔ,chī dào yú tóu、yú cì、ɡǔ tou děnɡ wù shí,bú yào wǎnɡ wài miàn tǔ,yě

bú yào wǎnɡ dì shànɡ rēnɡ,yào màn màn yònɡ shǒu ná dào zì jǐ de dié zi lǐ,huò

fànɡ zài jǐn kào zì jǐ cān zhuō biān huò fànɡ zài shì xiān zhǔn bèi hǎo de zhǐ

shànɡ 。

第六,要适时地抽空和左右的人聊几句风趣的话以调和气氛。不要狼吞虎咽地大吃一顿,更不要贪杯。

Sixth, talk with people who sit next to you in order to make a harmonious atmosphere. Don’t eat like wolves and tigers, don’t drink too much.

dì liù,yào shì shí de chōu kònɡ hé zuǒ yòu de rén liáo jǐ jù fēnɡ qù de huà yǐ

tiáo hé qì fēn。bú yào lánɡ tūn hǔ yān dì dà chī yí dùn,ɡènɡ bú yào tān bēi 。

第七,最好不要在餐桌上剔牙。如果要剔牙时,就要用餐巾或手挡住自己的嘴巴。

Seventh, best not pick your teeth at the table. If you want to pick your teeth, should use your hand or a napkin to cover mouth.

dì qī,zuì hǎo bú yào zài cān zhuō shànɡ tì yá。rú ɡuǒ yào tì yá shí,jiù yào

yònɡ cān jīn huò shǒu dǎnɡ zhù zì jǐ de zuǐ bɑ 。

第八,要明确此次进餐的主要任务。要明确以谈生意为主,还是以联络感情为主,或是以吃饭为主。如果是前者,在安排座位时就要注意,把主要谈判人的座位相互靠近便于交谈或疏通情感。如果是后者,只需要注意一下常识性的礼节就行了,把重点放在欣赏菜肴上。

Eighth, make clear the main task of this meal. To make clear the main task is to talk about the business, or to contact the feelings, or to eat mainly. If the former, must pay attention to the seating arrangements, the chief negotiators’ seats should be close to each other in order to talk or dredge emotion. If it is the latter, then only need to pay attention to common courtesy, focus on enjoying the dishes.

dì bā,yào mínɡ què cǐ cì jìn cān de zhǔ yào rèn wù。yào mínɡ què yǐ tán shēnɡ yi wéi zhǔ,hái shì yǐ lián luò ɡǎn qínɡ wéi zhǔ,huò shì yǐ chī fàn wéi zhǔ。rú

ɡuǒ shì qián zhě,zài ān pái zuò wèi shí jiù yào zhù yì,bǎ zhǔ yào tán pàn rén de zuò wèi xiānɡ hù kào jìn biàn yú jiāo tán huò shū tōnɡ qínɡ ɡǎn。rú ɡuǒ shì hòu

zhě,zhǐ xū yào zhù yì yí xiàr chánɡ shí xìnɡ de lǐ jié jiù xínɡ le. bǎ zhònɡ

diǎn fànɡ zài xīn shǎnɡ cài yáo shànɡ。

第九,最后离席时,必须向主人表示感谢,或者就此时邀请主人以后到自己家做客以示回敬。

Ninth, have to appreciate the host when leave, or invite the host to your home later in return.

dì jiǔ,zuì hòu lí xí shí,bì xū xiànɡ zhǔ rén biǎo shì ɡǎn xiè,huò zhě jiù

cǐ shí yāo qǐnɡ zhǔ rén yǐ hòu dào zì jǐ jiā zuò kè yǐ shì huí jìnɡ 。

4.纪录片《舌尖上的中国》The documentary “A Bite of China”

jì lù piàn 《 shé jiān shànɡ de zhōnɡ ɡuó 》

~

Additional Cultural knowledge

1. 岁寒三友——松、竹、梅

three durable plants of winter – pine, bamboo and plum blossom

suì hán sān yǒu — sōnɡ 、 zhú 、 méi

2. 花中四君子——梅、兰、竹、菊

four gentle flowers– plum blossom,orchid,bamboo and chrysanthemum

huā zhōnɡ sì jūn zǐ — méi 、 lán 、 zhú 、 jú

(received 12.11.2012 by Ms. Li Yunfang from yolanda-smile@qq.com)

(posted/reviewed 24.03.2013

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Hope in Different Cultures

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Hope in Chinese Language

..

Traditional: 希望
Simplified: 希望

First Character: 希 (xī) – rare; infrequent
Second Character: 望 (wàng) – hope; expect; to visit; to gaze (into the distance); look towards; towards

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at  http://mandarin.about.com/od/dailymandarin/a/xiwang.htm)

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The Tao Te King

13

Success is as dangerous as failure.
Hope is as hollow as fear.

What does it mean that success is as dangerous as failure?
Whether you go up the ladder or down it,
your position is shaky.
When you stand with your two feet on the ground,
you will always keep your balance.

What does it mean that hope is as hollow as fear?
Hope and fear are both phantoms
that arise from thinking of the self.
When we don’t see the self as self,
what do we have to fear?

See the world as your self.
Have faith in the way things are.
Love the world as your self;
then you can care for all things.

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at http://www.mindfully.org/Tao-Te-Ching-Lao-tzu.htm)

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Chinese Symbol for Hope (“we always have hope to face fate”)

The Chinese characters have developed long time ago and haven’t undergone many changes in the course of time. The hope symbol in Chinese culture has a mysterious appearance and is painted with the help of a brush. Traditionally, the hope symbol is drawn on a white rice paper. The paper is decorated with a floral silk pattern that is blue in color. The Chinese art of drawing such symbols is known as calligraphy. The hope symbol is also used as a wall hanging artwork. Bamboo could be used to frame this artwork.

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at http://www.buzzle.com/articles/chinese-symbol-for-hope.html – sorry, broken link)

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In Chinese language, fear and hope refers to 恐惧和希望(kǒnɡjù hé xī wànɡ). Symbols for fear are ghosts, diseases, death, and so on. All these things make people feel hopeless in life, so they try their best to avoid them. Symbols for hope are spring, the color green, the rising sun, and sunflowers. People think green means life is vigorous. The rising sun and sunflowers means life is coming again.

If you have any other questions related to Chinese language, please feel free to contact me at Jennifer.zhu@echineselearning.com. I would be glad to help.-Jennifer

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at http://answers.echineselearning.com/questions/2010-05/17/171358105YPGEFUSH.html)

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Hope in Western Culture

The Bible

Röm 15,13 May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace as you trust in him, so that you may overflow with hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at http://www.bibleserver.com/#/search/TNIV/hope/1 – please make sure, you get the English version)

Hope is termed a theological virtue because its immediate object is God, as is true of the other two essentially infused virtues, faith and charity. St. Thomas acutely says that the theological virtues are so called “because they have God for their object, both in so far as by them we are properly directed to Him, and because they are infused into our souls by God alone, as also, finally, because we come to know of them only by Divine revelation in the Sacred Scriptures”. Catholic Encyclopedia

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07465b.htm)

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Greek Mythology – Pandora

The theory of Hesiod,[8] the oldest of all the Greek poets, was that the Titan Prometheus, the son of Iapetus, had formed man out of clay, and that Athene had breathed a soul into him. Full of love for the beings he had called into existence, Prometheus determined to elevate their minds and improve their condition in every way; he therefore taught them astronomy, mathematics, the alphabet, how to cure diseases, and the art of divination. He created this race in such great numbers that the gods began to see the necessity of instituting certain fixed laws with regard to the sacrifices due to them, and the worship to which they considered themselves entitled from mankind in return for the protection which they accorded them. An assembly was therefore convened at Mecone in order to settle these points. It was decided that Prometheus, as the advocate of man, should slay an ox, which should be divided into two equal parts, and that the gods should select one portion which should henceforth, in all future sacrifices, be set apart for them. Prometheus so divided the ox that one part consisted of the bones (which formed of course the least valuable portion of the animal), artfully concealed by the white fat; whilst the other contained all the edible parts, which he covered with the skin, and on the top of all he laid the stomach.

Zeus, pretending to be deceived, chose the heap of bones, but he saw through the stratagem, and was so angry at the deception practised on him by Prometheus that he avenged himself by refusing to mortals the gift of fire. [25]Prometheus, however, resolved to brave the anger of the great ruler of Olympus, and to obtain from heaven the vital spark so necessary for the further progress and comfort of the human race. He accordingly contrived to steal some sparks from the chariot of the sun, which he conveyed to earth hidden in a hollow tube. Furious at being again outwitted, Zeus determined to be revenged first on mankind, and then on Prometheus. To punish the former he commanded Hephæstus (Vulcan) to mould a beautiful woman out of clay, and determined that through her instrumentality trouble and misery should be brought into the world.

The gods were so charmed with the graceful and artistic creation of Hephæstus, that they all determined to endow her with some special gift. Hermes (Mercury) bestowed on her a smooth persuasive tongue, Aphrodite gave her beauty and the art of pleasing; the Graces made her fascinating, and Athene (Minerva) gifted her with the possession of feminine accomplishments. She was called Pandora, which means all-gifted, having received every attribute necessary to make her charming and irresistible. Thus beautifully formed and endowed, this exquisite creature, attired by the Graces, and crowned with flowers by the Seasons, was conducted to the house of Epimetheus[9] by Hermes the messenger of the gods. Now Epimetheus had been warned by his brother not to accept any gift whatever from the gods; but he was so fascinated by the beautiful being who suddenly appeared before him, that he welcomed her to his home, and made her his wife. It was not long, however, before he had cause to regret his weakness.

He had in his possession a jar of rare workmanship, containing all the blessings reserved by the gods for mankind, which he had been expressly forbidden to open. But woman’s proverbial curiosity could not withstand so great a temptation, and Pandora determined to solve the mystery at any cost. Watching her opportunity she raised the lid, and immediately all the blessings which [26]the gods had thus reserved for mankind took wing and flew away. But all was not lost. Just as Hope (which lay at the bottom) was about to escape, Pandora hastily closed the lid of the jar, and thus preserved to man that never-failing solace which helps him to bear with courage the many ills which assail him.[10]

Having punished mankind, Zeus determined to execute vengeance on Prometheus. He accordingly chained him to a rock in Mount Caucasus, and sent an eagle every day to gnaw away his liver, which grew again every night ready for fresh torments. For thirty years Prometheus endured this fearful punishment; but at length Zeus relented, and permitted his son Heracles (Hercules) to kill the eagle, and the sufferer was released.

Read the whole “Myths and Legends of Ancient Greece and Rome” from E.M. Berens online at the Gutemberg Project or download the pdf here.

(retrieved 29.05.2010 at http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/22381?msg=welcome_stranger#page21)

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Various

Those of us raised in Western culture were never taught that fear is the price of hope. Rather, we can’t envision life without hope. Hell, according to Dante, is the place devoid of hope; he warned Christians condemned there to “abandon all hope, ye who enter herein.” The Hebrew prophets warned that without vision, the people perish.
Hope is what propels us into action. We’ve been taught to dream of a better world as the necessary first step in creating one. We create a clear vision for the future we want, then we set a strategy, make a plan, and get to work. We focus strategically on doing only those things that have a high probability of success.
As long as we “keep hope alive” and work hard, our endeavors will create the world we want. How could we do our work if we had no hope that we’d succeed?
Motivated by hope, but then confronted by failure, we become depressed and demoralized. Life becomes meaningless; we despair of changing things for the better. At such a time, we learn the price of hope. Rather than inspiring and motivating us, hope has become a burden made heavy by its companion, fear of failing.

Margaret Wheatley

(retrieved 29.05.2012 at http://www.margaretwheatley.com/articles/BeyondHopeandFear.pdf – sorry, broken link)

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(reviewed 20.02.2014)

Laotse and Confucius – Fundamental Traits in Asian Thinking

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(…) Nor can it be said truly that a pure-blooded Chinese could ever quite disagree with Chuangtse’s ideas. Taoism is not a school of thought in China, it is a deep, fundamental trait of Chinese thinking, and of the Chinese attitude toward life and toward society. It has depth, while Confucianism has only a practical sense of proportions; it enriches Chinese poetry and imagination in an immeasurable manner, and it gives a philosophic sanction to whatever is in the idle, freedom- loving, poetic, vagabond Chinese soul. It provides the only safe, romantic release from the severe Confucian classic restraint, and humanizes the very humanists themselves; therefore when a Chinese succeeds, he is always a Confucianist, and when he fails, he is always a Taoist. As more people fail than succeed in this world, and as all who succeed know that they succeed but in a lame and halting manner when they examine themselves in the dark hours of the night, I believe Taoist ideas are more often at work than Confucianism. Even a Confucianist succeeds only when he knows he never really succeeds, that is, by following Taoist wisdom. (…)

With special thanks to Milanda: The Chuang Tzu, translated by Yutang Lin at  http://terebess.hu/english/chuangtzu.html

Gabor Terebess runs a nice online database with many relevant works about the Tao wich is definitely worth a visit.

Download the Chuang Tzu as pdf here.

Download the The Analects of Confucius 論語 as pdf here or read online at http://www.acmuller.net/con-dao/analects.html

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(reviewed 02.10.2013)

Arrow, Circle, Spiral and Cylinder – Different Conceptions of Time and History

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The Arrow

Jürgen Kuhlmann wrote an interesting article about the different concepts of history from a theologist`s point of view (Kreis oder Pfeil, 1982). He noticed, that Christianity (Western thinking) mainly focuses on linear conceptions of time (and history), while Eastern philosophy mainly focuses on concentric structures.

Jürgen Kuhlmann: born 1936 in Swinemünde, 1962 Priest in Rome, 1965 Promotion to Dr. theol. At the University Gregoriana in Rome, 1965-1972 Kaplan in Naila and Nürnberg, 1972 Marriage, 1973 Laisierung. http://www.stereo-denken.de/pfeil-kr.htm

Prof. Dr. Dr. Norbert Lohfink is a specialist for the exegesis of the Old Testament. He explained the development of a linear construction of history in the „Priestly Source“. Around 600-500 BC the Jews were enslaved by the Babylonian empire and lived under hard circumstances in the „Babylonian Exile“. The consignees of their scriptures should see, that the loss of their motherland would only be a temporary state. In this dynamic, the world seems to be stable (if no human misbehaviour would interfere). (Orientierung 1977,147 f).

In “Messianism in linear and cyclical contexts” Jan A.B. Jongeneel writes: Although scholars write about messianic figures and movements in cyclical contexts, they cannot ignore the matter of fact that not one of the holy books of Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, or Shinto, but the Bible has given birth to the concept of the Messiah. Since that time the Messiah is really at home in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as linear belief-systems. However, it is questionable whether each of these three monotheistic religions can be labeled as a “messianic religion.” All these three religions are indeed “prophetic,” but merely the Jesus movement, known as Christianity, seems to be “messianic.” Neither Moses as the founder of the Jewish religion nor Muhammad as the founder of Islam is proclaimed as the Messiah. But Christians continuously proclaim Jesus of Nazareth, ardent adherent and renovator of the linear view of time and history in the Hebrew Bible, as the Messiah of Israel and the gentile nations. As such Jesus has axial significance in world history. Asian and African Christians take the lead in the dialogue with the adherents of the cyclical view of time and history. They try to harmonize, speaking about the spiral as a bridge of the cycle and the line. M.M. Thomas does not want to value the cyclical view of time and history negatively. He merely wants to add a dimension which is lacking wherever the cycle prevails: “The Christian understanding of historical and cosmic process need not deny the reality of the cycles of nature and life. But it stands or falls with the doctrine of the ultimate divine purpose of that process”. That doctrine culminates in proclaiming the return of Jesus as the Messiah at the end of the times. (Read his article online here or get the pdf here.)

Annotation of the editor: at the same time the idea of the “Natural Philosophy” spread in Greece, which fits perfectly to the model of the arrow: an individual shoots throughout the time like an arrow. The implementation of the circular model  is the eternal life after death, like the arrival in the Promised Land.

This picture hangs in my home since I can think. It is called “Der breite und der schmale Weg – The Broad And The Narrow Way”. It is a good example for the linear conception of time in Christian cultures. You get this funny picture in 500kb at Luzius Schneider . Also hard copies are available there.

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Bible, Jesaja 43

http://www.bibleserver.com/index.php

16 This is what the Lord says— he who made a way through the sea, a path through the mighty waters, 17 who drew out the chariots and horses, the army and reinforcements together, and they lay there, never to rise again, extinguished, snuffed out like a wick: 18Forget the former things; do not dwell on the past. 19 See, I am doing a new thing! Now it springs up; do you not perceive it? I am making a way in the wilderness and streams in the wasteland. 20 The wild animals honour me, the jackals and the owls, because I provide water in the wilderness and streams in the wasteland, to give drink to my people, my chosen, 21 the people I formed for myself that they may proclaim my praise.

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The Circle

Laotzi lived at the same time as the Jews suffered from the Babylonian Exile about 500 years ago. That time China was suffering from never-ending civil wars and a decay of culture. As the leading intellectual of his time, he surely was aware of the great past of his country and searched for the reasons for this cultural decay.  According to the changes in nature following different rhythms (moon, seasons, day and night, …) he developed the Dao (Tao) aka The Way, meaning to follow the natural order of nature. This natural order also includes a magic order of numbers. Like day and night, the seasons or the Chinese dynasties, all is due to a permanent change: up & down, raise & fall. Laotzi described those rhythms as circles in the Taoteking (tao te king),which is probably the main Asian contribution to human culture.

The Buddhist Samsara, the Wheel of Life is a model of human life. The devil holds this wheel, biting into the outer ring, representing the direct influence of the evil on daily life. The inner axle is formed by three animals, representing the deep human inner drives.

Taoism and Buddhism both have in common a circular perception of life. Both form the circular model of Chinese / Asian thinking.

See a nice Samsara here (http://brian.hoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/REL255/03.Jainism.Mahavira.html – broken link)

Taoteking
Do you think you can take over the universe and improve it?
I do not believe it can be done.

The universe is sacred.
You cannot improve it.
If you try to change it, you will ruin it.
If you try to hold it, you will lose it.

So sometimes things are ahead and sometimes they are behind;
Sometimes breathing is hard, sometimes it comes easily;
Sometimes there is strength and sometimes weakness;
Sometimes one is up and sometimes down.

Therefore the sage avoids extremes, excesses, and complacency.

[dt. v. Richard Wilhelm ,Jena 1921, Nr. 29 and edited by Dan Baruth)

http://www.iging.com/laotse/LaotseE.htm

For applications of circular vs. linear thinking please click here.

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The Spiral

Swiss journalist Lily Abegg, developed the model of the spiral. She writes according to the limited English skills of the editor: World history is similar to a unique, irreversible process, in which all cultures and individuals swings in a spiral. (…) Eastasians only see the concentric structures and do not see, that the spiral opens. We (i.e. Western people) mostly focus on distances and steps, skipping the concentric structures until the perspective looks linear.

(Ostasien denkt anders (Zürich 1949), 403 f)

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The Cylinder

In “Social Change and Modernity” Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser noted: The original Judaeo-Christian eschatology still conceives history within the bounds of a model based on the action period. By virtue of its covenant with a mighty God and the intervention of his Son, a people remembers and experiences its history as the path toward a salvation that, to begin with, was understood in quite earthly terms. This ultimately magical pattern of interpretation was not so much based on the separation of different temporal levels as on the topological difference between the chosen people and the heathens. It was not until after it became obvious that the return of the Redeemer could not be expected within a single lifetime that—under the influence of classical philosophy—the time horizon and the topological difference between life on earth and the hereafter, between God and the world, between the immortal soul and mortal flesh, and between the terrestrial and heavenly realms were expanded and thus diverted attention away from the division between the chosen people and the heathens. There was an added topological difference between the individual and the world historical levels of explanation. The individual was able to make progress along the path to salvation; the world, via the sequence of the three realms (paradise, life after the fall, and salvation), carried out God’s promise of deliverance. Another development of momentous significance was the new form taken on by the process model for change in the secular sphere. The cyclical view of the rise and fall of empires was supplemented by the perspective of the unilinear and irreversible development of the world and progress toward salvation.

Moreover, for history to be seen as the history of salvation, it was also necessary for humankind to be active in its approach and to strive for salvation. Redemption and the reconciliation of earthly life with the hereafter were not solely the work of God but involved humanity as well. This eschatological dualism introduced a comprehensive, positive moment of tension into historical change. No longer was change merely short-term unrest without underlying hope. It now had as its goal and ultimate end the perfection and redemption of the world. The beginning and end of history were in turn determined by the timelessness of paradise, past and future. Naturally, the eschatological process at first remained completely within the bounds of action-theoretical notions: the world has been created by a personal God who issued commandments, and if humanity followed these it would ensure its own progress to salvation. (Get the whole article as pdf here or read it online at The Center For Sociological Research And Development Studies Of China)

Quran: Al-Fatiha

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful (1)

Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, (2) The Beneficent, the Merciful. (3) Owner of the Day of Judgment, (4) Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help. (5) Show us the straight path, (6) The path of those whom Thou hast favoured. Not (the path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray. (7)

Quran Explorer

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Additional Material

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Mental Representations of Time in Chinese Language (Mandarin)

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Examples of spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin

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The immediate and chronic influence of spatio-temporal metaphors on the mental representations of time in English, Mandarin, and Mandarin-English speakers by Vicky Tzuyin Lai (Neurobiology of Language Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, Netherlands) and Lera Boroditsky (Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, US) – Front. Psychol., 09 April 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00142

Read the full .pdf online here or here.

(retrieved 31.10.2013 at www.frontiersin.org/Journal/DownloadFile.ashx?pdf=1&FileId=11690&articleId=28033&Version=1&ContentTypeId=21&FileName=fpsyg-04-00142.pdf)

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J. Gabriell and T. Hedden “How culture influences Brain”

Asians and Westeners had to answer questions about absolute quantities (is, is not, how many?) or relative qualities (bigger than, higher than, more red than,…)

It became obvious, that Western people have to spend more energy to render relative judgments (bigger than, lower than, …) than Asians. Vice versa it showed, that Asians needed more energy rendering absolute judgments (is or is not).


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J. Gabriell and T. Hedden from Mc Govern Institute in TechTalk by MIT (Mass. Institute for Technology), volume 52, No. 14 (30.01.2008)

Download the full pdf here, the article is on page 4 below.

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Michael Heeney: Spiral Staircases and Cylindrical Pools: The Implosion of “Circular” and “Linear” Gestalts

In modern German psychology, there is a concept called the gestalt which is useful for this discussion. In it, human beings are viewed as open systems in active interaction with their environment. People naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns, which have similar structural properties that influence concepts across the spectrum of human thought. It is essential to use this term when discussing “circular” and “linear” structures of thought, since these seemingly simple terms will come to represent their own individual gestalts, encapsulating multiple binary concepts subsumed and ordered under their respective structuring principles. The author Virginia Woolf provides an ideal springboard to expound upon this, since her novels attempt to encapsulate a fusion of the two structures into a singular, universal gestalt, or structuring principle. In many of her novels, particularly Orlando for the sake of this discussion, the goal of this is a synthesis between two different kinds of minds, the rational masculine and the subjective feminine, to produce the harmonized androgynous. This process is created through the synthesis of two different conceptions of time, the linear historical and circular subjective. Finally, the entire new gestalt is illustrated by how the dialectic of circles and lines combine to synthesize a cylinder, a spatial idea which symbolizes how the new androgynous mind articulates itself through time which respectively, as Kant has said, is merely the form of inner sense. (…)

It appears that in this case, the duality between male and female does have biological origins, but those of cognition, not those of gender. (…)

© by Serendip 1994­ 2010 ­ Last Modified: Monday, 25­Apr­2005 11:31:11 EDT

Read the full essay online at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_cult/evolit/s05/web3/mheeney.html or download as pdf here.

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Time as the Action Period

(…) An analysis of this kind starts out from an interpretational pattern that makes no distinction between processes of social action, on the one hand, and processes of social order and social change, on the other hand. There is no recognizable social order standing out above processes of interaction within the framework of this interpretational pattern. The perception of change and temporal alteration is limited to the time-period one has lived through and remembered, to the durée of social action.[7] Hence the “narrative” logic by which action is recounted both frames and structures the logic underlying the passage of time.[8] The “stories” recalled are kept in motion by interaction among a number of actors, and the stories’ beginnings and ends are determined by how the theme of interaction is dealt with.[9]

Both the change experienced in the world during the course of action and the change experienced in the subjects themselves that they remember as they consider own personal experience of getting old are of course limited as long as there is no social structure differentiating among time periods. Aging processes take place synchronously and therefore hardly give cause for the social differentiation of periods of time or of temporal levels. Beyond the period of action and the lifetime as directly experienced the world is experienced as something timeless and ultimately chaotic.

Primitive classifications, which by definition are not systematized by any superordinate principle, clearly show the unordered complexity of the world. They barely offer a topological “toehold” for identifying time that reaches beyond one’s own lifetime or beyond the actions of the present (Lévi-Strauss 1962). The only way in which primitive classification allows a number of lifetimes to be linked together is via the kinship link of conception and birth; this pushes the temporal horizon back into the past and creates an awareness of continuity and change independent of the experience of the present. Evidently, the extension of such a genealogical model of time marks out a line of development running from the action-period notion of time to the socially differentiated notion of time.

(…)

Apart from the extension of historical space in Voltaire’s philosophy of history, the natural sciences’ concept of time in the eighteenth century also broke through the barriers of the hierarchical model of temporal levels. The concept of an objective measurable passage of time determined and moved by the laws of nature gradually asserted itself as a point of reference. Against it, historical time appears limited, imprecise, and inconstant. The temporality of the world, on the one hand, and that of the passage of history and experience, on the other hand, are hence ever more sharply delineated by different process models. “Objective” time moves according to the eternal laws of nature, whereas historical time is kept in motion by the progress of the human race (Elias 1984).

(…)

An analogous paradigmatic switch occurred in biology when the Linnean classification of natural processes was succeeded by the Darwinian theory of evolution. Darwin’s theory of the origin of the species by natural selection, which was to prove extraordinarily momentous for the theory of society that followed, brings out, in its very name, the temporalization of order. A number of observers have noted that Darwinian theory itself took as its model certain economic theories of the day. (…)

The Temporalization of Social Order : Some Theoretical Remarks on the Change in ‘Change’ by Bernhard Giesen; Publ. 1992 in: Social change and modernity / ed. by Hans Haferkamp … Berkeley : Univ. of California Press, 1992, pp. 294-319

Read the except online here or download .pdf here.

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See also A Geography of Time

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(reviewed 12.07.2013)

Written by NoToes

15/01/2010 at 20:18

Posted in All Articles, Buddhism, China, Christianity, Collectivism and Individualism, Islam, Religion & Philosophy, Time in Different Cultures

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