Notes on Intercultural Communication

Archive for the ‘International Management’ Category

White Box Computers – The Chaiwan Model

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White Box Computers on the Rise

Mobile devices can be built in a modular way. Like Lego, the different modules can be sourced from different companies and assembled into a desired device. The key component is the Application Processor (AP).


application processor dialog

Application Processor (AP)

(retrieved 20.04.2014 at


Worldwide Tablet and PC Forecast 2012 - 2017

(terieved 20.04.2014 at


An interview with Joanne Chien, senior analyst & director, Digitimes Research

(…) a brand like Apple or Samsung controls everything in the process of bringing their products to market. Under the Chaiwan model, each sector does what it does best. For example, it starts with the key component provider, which in the case of smartphones is the application processor (AP). Companies like MediaTek or Qualcomm provide a turnkey solution and reference design to the players in the market.

Those other players include independent design houses (IDH), which provide design services and recommendations for components (such as connectors, casing, etc) that are not included in the AP turnkey solution. You also have EMS players, who do the manufacturing. And ultimately you have the customer, which could be a large brand, a small white-box brand, or any vendor that wants to bring a smartphone to market. Moreover, under this model, the order volumes don’t need to be very large, which means pretty much anyone who wants to can bring a smartphone to market in China, and it can be done quickly and cheaply.

Originally, this business model was developed by white-box players but it has been increasingly adopted by larger brands, such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo in China. A vendor such as Lenovo can direct development of one model through one IDH and EMS provider, while working with another pair of manufacturing partners for development of another model.

This has been a seismic shift for the market, but players are adapting. If you look at at AP provider MediaTek, the company no longer follows a strict roadmap. It simply reacts to what the market wants. In 2013, for example, MediaTek sometimes went a couple of months without releasing a new product and then would release two products in the same month. They weren’t following a roadmap, they were chasing demand.

This is also a new model for EMS providers, since they have been used to dealing with huge orders and following longer-term manufacturing plans. They now have to become more nimble and are learning how to cooperate with the IDHs and smaller brands for small orders and quick delivery.

Players adapt because this is where the growth is. China-based vendors account for approximately one-third of global smartphone shipments and the region had four of the top-10 vendors worldwide in 2013. For 2014, Digitimes Research forecasts that China will have five vendors in the top 10.

Looking at the rest of the market (non top 10 or “Other” segment) is even more interesting. This portion of the market is dominated by Greater China vendors and white-box players. The Other segment accounted for 12% of global smartphone shipments in 2012, 21% of the global market in 2013 and Digitimes Research forecasts the share will rise to 25.6% in 2014.

This means that the global smartphone industry is opening up rather than consolidating and it is directly a result of the dynamic interplay seen in the Chaiwan model. Moreover, China vendors are now exporting about 30% of their smartphones (as of 2013) and that proportion is forecast to rise. (…)




Read the full article online here or download pdf here.


(retriewed 13.04.2014 at



(retrieved 13.04.2014 at



Branded Unbranded Tablet Panels
(terieved 20.04.2014 at


(reviewed 23.04.2014)

The Stan Shih Smile Curve

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The Stan Shih Smile and Frown Curve


Stan Shih`s Smile Curve



Stan Shih`s Smile Curve / Frown Curve

Bill Weinberg completed Stan Shih`s Smile Curve by adding the “Frown Curve”, which describes the increased efficiency of the producing units. Read the whole article online here or check his LinuxPundit Weblog.

(reviewed 13.04.2014)

China’s GDP in 2013

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Only 30% of the world now has a higher GDP per capita than China (2013)


In many ways, what we are witnessing is not the ‘emergence of Asia’, but the ‘re-emergence of Asia’

(…) In 1820, Asia accounted for just under 60 per cent of total global output, with China and India together accounting for nearly half of global GDP. This was followed by nearly two centuries of economic decline in Asia, ignited by the European industrial revolution—a trend that has now been reversed. (…)

Jayant Menon, ADB

Read the full article online here of here.

/retrieved 09.06.2013 at



(retrieved 09.06.2013 at


China’s economic achievement is so enormous, indeed literally without parallel in human history, that it is sometimes difficult for people to take in its scale. A country which in 1978, when “reform and opening up” was launched, was one of the poorest in the world, has now reached a point where it has a higher GDP per capita than the countries containing the majority of the world’s population. Only 30 per cent of the world’s population now lives in countries with higher per capita GDP than China.

China and the World's GDP

To give absolutely precise numbers, drawing on the newly published data for the world economy in 2012 released by the IMF, the chart shows that by 2012, only 30.2 per cent of the world’s population lived in countries with a higher GDP per capita than China, while 50.2 per cent lived in countries with a lower one. China itself constituted 19.6 per cent of the world’s population at this time.

China is, therefore, now in the top half of the world as far as economic development is concerned, and to avoid any suggestions of exaggeration, it should be made clear that these comparisons are at the current market exchange rate measures usually used in China – although calculations in parity purchasing powers (PPPs), which are the measure preferred by the majority of Western economists, makes no significant difference to the result.

The chart also illustrates China’s extraordinary progress. In 1978, when “reform and opening up” began, only 0.5 per cent of the global population lived in countries with a lower GDP per capita than China, while 73.5 per cent lived in countries with a higher GDP per capita. The transition to a situation where China has overtaken the majority of the world’s population in per capita GDP is the greatest economic transformation in human history, both in terms of the short time frame required and number of people affected.

Given that the data clearly shows China has progressed into the top half of the world economy in terms of economic development, why do some persist with misrepresenting China as being “in the middle” or even more misleadingly dubbing it a “poor” country by international standards?

Such misrepresentations make elementary statistical errors which are familiar to those who analyse income distribution data. For example the following argument is sometimes presented: The IMF World Economic Outlook database gives GDP per capita statistics for 188 countries with China ranking 94th – therefore China is “in the middle”. Another sometimes-cited statistic compares China to the world average – in 2012 China’s GDP per capita was 59 per cent of this average figure – making China appear a “poor” country.

The problem with this “list” method is that it does not take population into account. For example, the Caribbean state St Kitts and Nevis, population 57,000, has a higher GDP per capita than China while India, population 1.223 billion, has a lower one. To say China is “between the two”, as though St Kitts and Nevis and India represent equivalent weights in the world economy, is playing games with words rather than carrying out serious analysis. This elementary statistical rule is particularly relevant given that the number of developed economies with small populations is disproportionately large. The population of countries must therefore be taken into account when calculating China’s real relative position in the world economy.

The second mistake, comparing China to the “average”, makes an error so well known in income distribution statistics that it is somewhat surprising anyone gives it any credence, let alone continues to propose it.

Statisticians know that averages, technically speaking the “mean”, can be disproportionately affected by small numbers of extreme values. It is well known that this applies to incomes within countries as small numbers of billionaires artificially raise average incomes in a way that misrepresents the real situation.

This statistical distortion is clear from international data. Average world GDP per capita, that is world GDP divided by the number of people, is slightly more than $10,000 per year. But only 29.9 per cent of the world’s population lives in countries with GDP per capita above that level while 70.1 per cent live in countries below it. Something with only 29.9 per cent above and 70.1 per cent below is not most people’s idea of an average!

What most people understand by an average, the mid-point, is, in proper statistical terms, not the average but the median. Reputable studies on income distribution, therefore, almost invariably use the median, not averages, to avoid this distorting effect of small numbers of extreme values. Using the statistically misleading average, instead of the mid-point, bizarrely transforms the real situation – that China now has a GDP per capita above that of the majority of the world’s population – into giving the impression that China is a poor country!

There are three main reasons why it is important to accurately present China’s level of development.

First, policy must be based on accurate analysis – in serious matters there is no virtue in either optimism or pessimism, only in realism. As the famous Chinese phrase tells us, it is better to seek truth from facts.

Second, accurate presentation is necessary to clearly understand the real economic challenges China faces. For example China’s GDP per capita is now higher than all developing South and South East Asian countries except Malaysia – clarifying why any competitive strategy for China based on low wages is unviable.

Third, China’s position in the top half of the world in terms of GDP per capita makes clear its technological level – China’s economy is now dominated by medium, not low, technology.

Does an accurate presentation of China’s real level of development endanger its international legal status as a developing economy? The World Bank has not yet published new criteria for the GDP per capita necessary to qualify as an “advanced” economy, but the 2011 criteria and statistical data is available and it tells us that the answer to the question is “no”. To classify as “high income”, an economy must have an annual GDP per capita of slightly more than $12,000. Only 16 per cent of the world’s population lives in such economies. It will take 10-15 years for China to achieve “high income” status – although when it does this will more than double the number of people living in such economies.

Achieving the “Chinese dream” requires that the present reality is accurately understood. China has entered the top half of the world’s level of economic development. Only 30 per cent of the world’s population lives in countries with a higher GDP per capita than China. That is the accurate analysis of China’s relative position in the world economy. To achieve the “Chinese dream” requires eliminating not only any exaggerated bombast but also any systematic underestimation

This article originally appeared in Chinese at Sina Finance and in English at


 John Ross

John Ross

Is Visiting Professor at Antai College of Economics and Management, Jiao Tong University, Shanghai


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(retrieved 25.05.2013 at


Read more about China and it’s economy from John Ross

Key Trends in Globalisation

Seek truth from facts – 实事求是 (Chinese saying originally from the Han dynasty)


World Economic Outlook (WEO) – International Monetary Fund – Survey 2013

World Economic Outlook 2013

(above retrieved 25.05.2013 at,,


What that dramatic economic shift means to people, describes Onionjuggler in her Force Feeding Duck Style:

A student told me this story as part of a midterm last year, and I thought it was so cute I would share it with you.

For her fifth birthday, Helen’s* mother wanted to make her a special dinner. She lived in the country, and at that time everyone was very poor, so meat was hard to come by. Her mother had to take the day off to travel to a different town to buy some pork, and in the end was only able to afford enough meat for Helen– the rest of the family would have to make due with the usual vegetables and noodles.

That night, Helen was so excited to eat her fancy dinner. But when her mother handed her the bowl, her older brother pointed at it and said, “Look out! There is a spider on the bottom of the bowl!”

Helen tipped the bowl over to look for the spider, and poured her whole dinner onto the dirty floor. Her mother scolded her brother, but she couldn’t salvage the dinner. Poor Helen cried and cried, and she never forgot that birthday.

*Her real name isn’t Helen– that’s just the name she chose for class.

(retrieved 25.05.2013 at


China in 2050

China in 2050Photo by Benoit Cezard

(retrieved 13.07.2013 at


(reviewed 13.07.2013)

Learning to do Business in China

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Learning to do Business in China


The Evolution of BAT’s Cigarette Distribution Network in China 1902 – 1952


Hatamen cigarettes


(…) Today, a visit to the Duke Homestead and Tobacco Museum in Durham provides one with a fascinating overview of the history of tobacco, the development of a unique local tobacco culture, and the pioneering role of the Duke family in the manufacture and marketing of cigarettes. Less well-known is the fact that the Duke family was involved in the global marketing of tobacco products well before the term “globalization” was coined. It is reported that immediately after the invention of the cigarette machine in 1881, James B. Duke (1865-1925) leafed through a world atlas to survey the population of foreign countries. Upon coming to the figure 430,000,000 he exclaimed: “That is where we are going to sell cigarettes.” The country was China and from 1890, when the first cigarettes were exported there by the Dukes, sales skyrocketed to 1.25 billion cigarettes in 1902 and to 12 billion in 1916 earning $20.75 million with a net profit of $3.75 million. From 1915 through the 1920s, more cigarettes were exported each year (with one exception) from the United States to China than to the rest of the world combined. British American Tobacco Company (or BAT, a multi-national company formed in 1902 with the Duke’s chief competitors in England) would sell 80 billion cigarettes in China in 1928 alone and amass a total profit of over $380 million between 1902-1948. Leading the way was James A. Thomas (1862-1940), the managing director of BAT in China from 1905 to 1922 (…).

Stanley K. Abe

received 17.11.2012 at


(…) There was an anti-cigarette movement in the early 1900s, but it was more concerned with morality than health. A rise in smoking among women and children fed into a wider concern about the moral decline of society. Cigarettes were prohibited in 16 different US states between 1890 and 1927.


Bonsack’s cigarette machine

retrieved 18.11.2012 at


Howard Cox of the University of Worcester says Thomas was one of the first Westerners to understand Chinese ways of doing business, based on networking and reciprocal favours. At first, cigarettes were imported from the US, but manufacturing soon shifted to China. For Cox, this transfer of production technology rather than product marks a move from colonial trade towards the current age of globalisation and multinational corporations. Thomas had his own team of salesmen from the US, but he also formed joint ventures with established Chinese firms to distribute his product. This way of doing business is the norm today for international firms hoping to tap into the Chinese market. (…)

received 17.11.2012 at


Howard Cox about James A. Thomas

(…) Under the managerial guidance of James Thomas, BAT soon began to look beyond (those) limited horizons. On assuming control in Shanghai, therefore, Thomas began to step up local production facilities and recruited an expatriate sales team who, supported by salaried Chinese interpreters, could take these low-priced cigarettes “up-country” and establish relations with the traditional Chinese merchant houses that managed China’s internal trade. During the ten years in which Thomas was in control of BAT’s operations in Shanghai, the company established an extensive network of Chinese dealers who conducted warehousing arrangements for them beyond the treaty ports, and who took responsibility for the distribution of their products to the final consumer. So effective did these links with Chinese merchants become, that, by the latter part of the 1920s, the need for Western salesmen to engage in travelling had more or less ceased.


Traditionally, American tobacco manufacturers had merely employed a few travelling salesmen to make contact with local jobbers and retailers, while the bulk of the trade remained in the hands of independent wholesalers who supplied small retailers with a variety of goods, of which tobacco was only one. However, during the mid-1880s the largest cigarette manufacturers began to set up their own warehouses to serve dealers in the largest cities. The effect of this was to eliminate many commission merchants and some of the largest urban jobbers from the distribution system for cigarettes in the United States.


One of the tasks of these travelling BAT salesmen was to monitor the market conditions in the different parts of the country to which they travelled. This was undertaken through the completion of Form 163, a survey of market conditions which had been designed by Thomas during his early excursions into the field. The form was completed monthly by all of the company’s travelling representatives as they visited dealers, before being returned to the company’s headquarters in Shanghai. It set out the prevailing conditions for each town in terms of population, dealers operating, depot facilities available, stock levels by brand, the local currency exchange rate and the general income levels of the inhabitants. Duke had understood well the importance of accurate information of this kind, and his chief accountant in New York, W.R. Harris, created an accounting system for the American organisation, based around daily reports on brand sales by town, in order to keep stocks flowing smoothly.


Important as the American and other foreign salesmen were to the company’s early growth in China, the expansion of BAT’s distribution system also necessitated the increasing participation of Chinese merchants. One reason for this lay in the provisions of the trade treaties themselves which prevented foreigners from owning land outside of the treaty ports and thus presented BAT with severe problems in terms of expanding their network of warehouse provision. To overcome this it was necessary to develop a system of warehouses which were under the ownership of Chinese nationals. In addition, BAT needed to tap into the well-established Chinese trading networks that already delivered goods extensively within China.

Download here the whole pdf, or see below for the online versions.

UNIVERSITY OF WORCESTER , Learning to do Business in China: the Evolution of BAT’s Cigarette Distribution Network, 1902-41 by Howard Cox 1997. This is an electronic version of an article published in Business History, Vol.39, No.3, (1997), pp.30-64. Business History is available online at:
Received 17.11.2012 at


James A. Thomas with two Eunuchs


See more about the Life of James A. Thomas in the Duke University / North Carolina, USA


reviewed 17.11.2012

Learning Chinese Language

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Learning Chinese Language or The Journey is the Destination

After the first experience in communicating with Asian colleagues I was convinced, that most of our misunderstandings would be about the poor English. So I decided to learn Chinese language… My first words were 八 (bā – eight) and 〇 (líng). We were unloading a container and had to sort the boxes according to the numbers written on. My boxes were number 8 and 0.  It took me about a year to understand, that those “misunderstandings” were not about the language – it was all about the culture.

But the more I learned from Asian cultures, the more I was aware that the language is a key to a culture. So I got a self-learning book and began to learn Chinese language. Soon I found out, that intonation plays a key role in the meaning of words. I went out and bought another book, this time with a CD inside.

First encounter with learning Chinese language (self-learning)

In the mornings, when I was sitting in the bus to my working place, I listened to the recording and improved my intonation (I am a Laofutze, my dad is a Laofutze and we do not care for appearing stupid in public – except for the only aesthete of the family). And after a full working day with great Chinese business partners I simply was too tired of anything Chinese.After about six months my efforts in learning Chinese language faded out.

Second encounter with learning Chinese language (language-tandem)

Since we have a certain amount of Chinese citizens in the town I live in, it was easy to find a Chinese person, who would like to exchange language skills. After several attempts I gave up due to the inefficiency. Teaching a language requires more than speaking it.

Third encounter with learning Chinese language (learning Chinese online)

I came in contact with Ms. Clary Xue, who did an academic research on learning Chinese online. Unfortunately I was too late to take part on this research, but we kept contact. After some months I booked an introduction to Chinese learning . Since Ms. Xue is located in Beijing, we communicated on different online based platforms. The online interactive whiteboard is a great help.

BTW: got a tablet meanwhile. Improves my life.

Lesson 1

Ms. Xue checked my skills first. Guess she found some basic ideas about intonation and Pinyin. After one lesson I had a set of vocabularies to cover the first words on a formal encounter. For communication we used VOIP and an interactive online whiteboard. The lesson included “homework” and documentation, which I received a few hours later by email.

Lesson 2

After repeating the previous lesson we started with new words. Ms. Xue has a defined curriculum and enlarged my vocabulary to the first sentences. Now I can introduce myself as well as other people. Chinese obviously people like relations, so often a title is attached to the family name (“laoshi Xue” for “teacher Xue”).

There are words for each member of the family, like younger brother “didi” or older sister “jiejie”. In the internet I even found the word “xiaojiuzi” for “younger brother of the wife”.


Happy Chinese New Year!


Lessons 5 & 6

In these lessons Ms. Xue had a hard time with me. Due to personal circumstances I could not focus well on the lessons. Some days later I received an audio file as a review of the previous lessons.

Lesson 7

As a customer of Deutsche Telekom (which provides my telephone and internet line), I sometimes can make phone calls and surf the internet. In trying to improve this state, an engineer of the Deutsche Telekom began his job shortly before the lesson and interrupted it later on.

Today we went through simple conversations. I learned how to invite someone and to make an appointment. Ms. Xue introduced me to the word “le”, which indicates a completion of an action.

Lesson 8

One of my favourite words: xǐhuan – to like…



Lesson 9

Now I got a little further in conversation.


One year later…

历史 的 茶 在 德国

在 德国 我们 知道 茶  250 年 以前. 中国人 在 Java 卖 茶 给 荷兰人。 250 年 以前 啤酒 最 safe drink。 1750 年 茶 也 是 safe drink。开水 对 身体 很好。 德国的 政府 不 喜欢人们 喝 茶。 钱 去 在 荷兰 和 中国。


Frederick / Friedrich II 岁 68)

他的 外祖父 去 英国。 他 married 王后  Anne 也  是 国王。 他的 名字 George I.

1750 也 土豆 在 德国 去。 这个 时间 是了 beginning of industrialization (The „Königlich Preußische Asiatische Compagnie in Emden nach Canton und China – Imperial Prussian Asian Company in Emden/Germany to Guangdong and China” founded in 1751 already was 股份 公司!一半 shareholders 是了 荷兰人。


词 “tea” (德语 “Tee”) 去 广东语 (caa4/taa4)。 欧洲人 说 “tea” 即使 我们 卖 给 广东。 “Tea” 去 跟 船。 别的 国 卖 茶 在 丝绸之路 (silk road)。 俄国人 也 阿拉伯人 说 “Chai” (Tshai). 他们 卖 给 中国 北方。 中国 北方人 说 茶叶 [茶葉] cháyè (tea leaves).


(Europeans transported the tea by ship from southern China, so they also took the Cantonese “taa4”. Other countries transported the tea by land, so they bought in northern China and adopted the Mandarin spelling “chaye”.

1840 英国人 作 茶 在  印度 and grew there with industrial methods for a much cheaper price. They combined an Indian tea-plant with a Chinese one and achieved a tea according to Indian climate.

有意思 德国人 跟 中国人 喝 差不多量 的 茶.

1920 it became popular for young people to go to a “Tanztee” (“Dance-Tea”). 和 茶 和 跳舞。 That young people 跳舞 Charleston and Foxtrott, which was scandalous that time. 1926 我的 外祖母  met 我的 外祖父  at a “Tanztee”.

Berlin, Tanztee im "Esplanade"

在 德国 我们 迟到 茶  250 年 以前.    知道(zhīdào)

中国人 在 Java 卖了 察 茶 to the 荷兰人。

卖(mài)茶(chá)给(gěi)荷兰人(hélánrén),or: 卖给(màigěi)…茶(chá)

以前 1750 啤酒 最 safe drink。1750年(nián)以前(yǐqián)….

1750 也 茶 是 safe drink。 1750年(nián)茶(chá)也(yě)是(shì)….

德国的 政府 不 喜欢了人们 喝 茶。 不(bù)喜欢(xǐhuan)

钱 去 在 荷兰 和 中国。 去(qù)了(le)

Boiled 水 很好 身体。


1750 也 土豆 在 德国 去。 到(dào)了(le)德国(déguó)

这个 时间 是了 beginning of industrialisation  是(shì)

1840 英国人 作 茶 在  印度 。生产(shēngchǎn):produce

有意思 德国人 跟 中国人 喝 差不多amount of 茶.



Sexy Mandarin

sexy mandarin



… on my knees.

(retrieved 12.12.2012 at /


Hans im Glück

幸 运儿 / 汉斯 很 高兴

很都 年 以前 有 一个人, 他 叫 汉斯 。 汉斯 工作了 七 年. 现在 他 要 去 在 他的 妈妈家。

他的 老板 给 了汉斯很多 的 金子, 汉斯 的 妈妈 家在 很 远.。汉斯 很 高兴。

在城市 很 热,有人和马,(or 有人卖马), 汉斯 买了一匹 马。 汉斯 很 高兴。可是他 不会 骑马, 汉斯 不 喜欢 马了。

他 看到了 牛。 他 觉得 牛 比 马好。 牛 有 牛奶 和 肉。 他 用马 换了 牛。 汉斯 很 高兴。但是 这头 牛 没有 奶。

ìng yùn ér / hàn sī hěn gāo xīng

hěn dōu nián yǐ qián yǒu yī gè rén , tā jiào hàn sī 。 hàn sī gōng zuò le qī nián . xiàn zài tā yào qù zài tā de mā mā jiā 。

tā de lǎo bǎn gěi le hàn sī hěn duō de jīn zǐ , hàn sī de mā mā jiā zài hěn yuǎn .。hàn sī hěn gāo xīng 。

zài chéng shì hěn rè ,yǒu rén hé mǎ ,(or yǒu rén mài mǎ ), hàn sī mǎi le yī pǐ mǎ 。 hàn sī hěn gāo xīng 。kě shì tā bù huì qí mǎ , hàn sī bù xǐ huān mǎ le 。

tā kàn dào le niú 。 tā jué dé niú bǐ mǎ hǎo 。 niú yǒu niú nǎi hé ròu 。 tā yòng mǎ huàn le niú 。 hàn sī hěn gāo xīng 。dàn shì zhè tóu niú méi yǒu nǎi 。

在 城市 有 人 和 猪在一起。 汉斯 觉得 猪 最好。 他 用 牛 换了 猪。 汉斯 很 高兴。

在 城市 另一个 人 说: “你 从 小偷那里买了猪, 如果 国王 你 看到, 你 有 麻烦。 如果你用猪换鹅,就没问题了!” 汉斯 很 快 用猪换了 鹅。 他 很 高兴。

在 别的 城市 他 看到 Scherenschleifer. Scherenschleifer 做 刀子 最好. Scherenschleifer 说: “我 有 很好 的 石头。 如果 你 有 石头 你 可以 总是 赚钱。” 汉斯 用 鹅 换了 石头,他 很 高兴。

zài chéng shì yǒu rén hé zhū zài yì qǐ 。 hàn sī jué de zhū zuì hǎo 。 tā yòng niú huàn le zhū 。 hàn sī hěn gāo xìng 。

zài chéng shì lìng yí gè rén shuō : “nǐ cóng xiǎo tōu nà lǐ mǎi le zhū , rú guǒ guó wáng nǐ kàn dào , nǐ yǒu má fán 。 rú guǒ nǐ yòng zhū huàn é ,jiù méi wèn tí le !” hàn sī hěn kuài yòng zhū huàn le é 。 tā hěn gāo xìng 。

zài bié de chéng shì tā kàn dào Scherenschleifer. Scherenschleifer zuò dāo zi zuì hǎo . Scherenschleifer shuō : “wǒ yǒu hěn hǎo de shí tou 。 rú guǒ nǐ yǒu shí tou nǐ kě yǐ zǒng shì zhuàn qián 。” hàn sī yòng é huàn le shí tou ,tā hěn gāo xìng 。

现 在 汉斯 到了 妈妈的城市附近。 天气很 热 , 汉斯 要 喝水。 在 河里他 喝水, 石头 丢了。 他 很 高兴, 因为, 现在 他 不 用带着石头去找妈妈。 汉斯 很 高兴。 在家里 汉斯 很 高兴。

xiàn zài hàn sī dào le mā mā de chéng shì fù jìn 。 tiān qì hěn rè , hàn sī yào hē shuǐ 。 zài hé lǐ tā hē shuǐ , shí tóu diu1 le 。 tā hěn gāo xīng , yīn wéi , xiàn zài tā bù yòng dài zhe shí tóu qù zhǎo mā mā 。 hàn sī hěn gāo xīng 。 zài jiā lǐ hàn sī hěn gāo xīng 。


Useful links:

Study Droid: nice DIY flashcards for Android smartphones.

Pinyin editor from Chinese-Tools for entering phonetic symbols.


(reviewed 04.04.2013)

Stan Shih in Pictures

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stan shih 2012 01

Stan Shih 2012 in an interviev with Asian Consumer Insight

(retrieved 14.09.2013 at



Mrs. Carolyne Yeh September 2009

(The first Lady at the right side)

Read the full story at LIFE.


2009 / Source


Q & A: STAN SHIH OF ACER, Computing Success by Carrie Kirby, Chronicle Staff Writer, San Francisco Chronicle March 25, 2002, 04:00 AM – Read the full interview with the SanFranciscoChronicle by Carrie Kirby the web or get it here.


Stan Shih 2002 by Chris Stowers for  an interview from 2002 by Ow Ying-Chuan / ReadersDigest in the web or here.





(retrieved 14.09.2013 at



Premier Sun Yun-suan is briefed by Stan Shih, former chairman and chief executive officer of Acer Group, on the situation of the electronics industry at the 1982 Taiwan Electronics Show. (Courtesy of Sun Yun-suan Foundation)

Get the whole story from Taiwan Journal in the web or here.

(retrieved 14.09.2013)


Stan Shih before 1980 (?) Source: oneVillage received 30.12.2010



(Last row, second person on the right) Photo from  an interview from 2002 by Ow Ying-Chuan / ReadersDigest in the web or here.


Photo from  an interview from 2002 by Ow Ying-Chuan / ReadersDigest in the web or here.


It’s impressing, how much those eyes tell. On the one hand, Mr. Shih is exceptional, but on the other hand, this photo is an interesting document about Taiwanese history. Shiu Lien appears with a rather doubtfull expression, and little Stan Shih does not even look into the camera. Without words, this picture describes the fight for survival of a young Chinese mother in the middle of the 20th century.


Structures of International Companies

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The Matrix Organization





For those companies with teams in a matrix structure, what lessons can they learn about making matrix management work?

1. Define roles and responsibilities up front. In a matrix, as well as with many of today’s teams, there are at least two sets of roles that are important to define: the matrix leader who is reporting to at least two bosses (one is the functional boss – the boss to whom he/she ordinarily reports to, and the other is the matrix boss), and the two bosses themselves. In some cases, the matrix leader may have a “day job” as well as being responsible for leading a matrix team. It is important to make sure that the two bosses agree on their roles and responsibilities vis-à-vis the matrix team, especially around decision-making authority. This is best done through a facilitated discussion and with the use of a RACI (Who is responsible? Who is accountable? Who should be consulted? Who will implement?) chart – a very useful tool for clarifying roles and responsibilities.

2. Agree on performance goals and metrics. This can be done at the beginning of the year, during the objective-setting process, or when the team is first formed, as part of its charter. The matrix team leader should draft a set of objectives and metrics and make sure that this is negotiated with and agreed to by both of his or her bosses.

3. Establish ground rules or operating agreements on resource allocation and communication. Who will be responsible for approving and overseeing the budget for the matrix team – the functional boss to whom the matrix leader reports or the boss of the matrix team? When additional resources are needed (financial or human), who will be responsible? What are the expectations with regard to the matrix leader’s communication with the two bosses, as well as between the two bosses? The two bosses, along with the matrix leader, should work out some agreements in advance to avoid confusion and conflicts later on.

4. Determine how evaluations and rewards are going to be decided. Who will evaluate the performance of the team and the leader, and how will rewards be decided? Again, the two bosses need to agree on a process and create some simple mechanisms. In another organization I worked with, the functional boss was responsible conducting the performance review with the matrix leader, but made sure that he or she sat down and got input from the matrix boss. In another organization, the actual performance review was conducted jointly by the two bosses – via video conference, since one boss was based in Europe.



International Matrix Organization

Source: ppt about international matrix organization


Ethics of Matrix Organization

(…) Usual challenge in matrices is the shared responsibilities and unclear structure. Common and well justified question is: “How the shared responsibilities really work, or does it work at all?”. According to Kosonen the successful matrix organisation is based on trust. Executives responsible for business areas and those running the matrix operations have to work in a culture of a shared trust.

When allocation of resources is commonly accepted by the management, the resources are not owned by any particular business unit. This in turn allows larger and more flexible competence centres, which creates strategic agility for the whole business system. Matrix managers have to always consider business logic of the system. They are obliged to leave both unit and personal level short term wins if they contradict with the entity.

Lack of trust creates silos and in practice eventually blocks flexible allocation of resources. Continuous questioning of motives and undermining colleagues’ achievements are signs of lack of trust. These kind of signs should lead to immediate correcting actions.

Matrix demands an open and transparent organizational culture. People working for the same project should share same incentives despite which part of the organization they belong. The incentives are based on openly communicated targets and guidance metrics.

Matrices fit well for growth businesses as it may be good tool for removing obstacles of growth. Obviously the model itself is not going to change mature business to growth path. When introducing the model in any scale in any organization, the importance of trust can’t be too much underlined.

Source or here.


Visions in Matrix Organization

(…) Mehr Insektenhaftigkeit, bitte. Grundverkehrt ist es, kooperatives Verhalten mit falscher Harmoniesucht zu verwechseln. Schließlich beweist jeder Streit Kooperation – z. B. der Streit um die bestmögliche Kundenbetreuung. Konflikte sind deshalb kein Krisenzeichen, sondern ein Zeichen dafür, dass eine Organisation verschiedenartige Präferenzen hat, die für unterschiedliche Situationen Anpassungsvorteile haben können. Derart den Konflikt als Kooperation wahrzunehmen, ist der erste Schritt zu einer Business-Fairnes, die keine Gebote braucht, sondern aus sich selbst verstärkenden wechselseitigen Verhaltensmustern erwächst. Wir halten fest: In der Matrix müssen Menschen Eigenschaften entwickeln, die sie nicht mit Wölfen, sondern eher mit Insekten vergleichbar machen. Inwiefern das gelingt, hängt nicht zuletzt davon ab, wie kontinuierlich Manager an einer Kultur des kooperativen Konflikts arbeiten. Gemeinsame Visionen und Ziele helfen dabei nicht nur, sondern sind unabdingbar. (…)

© FischerGroupInternational / fgi news 05 – „Matrixorganisation“

Den ganzen Artikel im Web oder hier.