Perception and Expression of Emotions in Different Cultures
Perception and Expression of Emotions in Different Cultures
Facial Expressions develop in the Womb
(…) Before he or she is born, a fetus begins to move his or her face — parting lips, wrinkling a nose or lowering a brow for example — making movements that, when combined, will one day assemble expressions we all recognize in one another. A new study has shown that, as the fetus develops, these facial motions become increasingly complex. (…)
Nadja Reissland, University of Durham in the United Kingdom
(retrieved 04.02.2014 at http://www.livescience.com/15939-fetus-facial-expressions.html)
Study of Facial Expression of Blind Athletes
(…) By studying the expressions of the blind athletes in the Paralympic Game and in comparing them to the expressions to the athletes’ (…) regularly games, we can tell whether they have the same expressions or not.
So the study of the blind athletes in the Paralympic Games told us conclusively, that the source of facial expression of emotions must be resident in some innate biological program, that we all have and are born with and that we have from birth. And that everybody from around the world, as long as you’re a human has that. (…)
David Matsumoto – Professor of Psychology, San Francisco State University (transcription from the video by the editor)
(retrieved 04.02.2014 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5G6ZR5lJgTI&feature=player_detailpage)
(…) Central to all human interaction is the mutual understanding of emotions, achieved primarily by a set of biologically rooted social signals evolved for this purpose—facial expressions of emotion. Although facial expressions are widely considered to be the universal language of emotion (…), some negative facial expressions consistently elicit lower recognition levels among Eastern compared to Western groups (…).
Read the full pdf here.
(retrieved 12.02.2014 at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982209014778)
Visual Perception of Emotions in Different Cultures
(retrieved 09.05.2013 at https://www.boundless.com/psychology/sensation-and-perception/advanced-topics-in-perception/cultural-influences-on-perception/)
(Color coding is as follows: blue, “left eye”; green, “right eye”; yellow, “bridge of nose”; orange, “center of face”; red, “mouth.”)
(The succession of blue → green → blue circles (indicated by the black arrow) corresponds to the fixation sequence “left eye” → “right eye” → “left eye.”)
(…) Here, we report marked differences between EA (East Asians) and WC (Western Caucasian) observers in the decoding of universal facial expressions. EA observers exhibited a significant deficit in categorizing ‘‘fear’’ and ‘‘disgust’’ compared to WC observers. Also, WC observers distributed their fixations evenly across the face, whereas EA observers systematically biased theirs toward the eye region. A model observer revealed that EA observers sample information that is highly similar between certain expressions (i.e., ‘‘fear’’ and ‘‘surprise’’; ‘‘disgust’’ and ‘‘anger’’). Despite the apparent lack of diagnostic information, EA observers persisted in repetitively sampling the eye regions of ‘‘fear,’’ ‘‘disgust,’’ and ‘‘anger.’’ (…)
Cultural Confusions Show that Facial Expressions Are Not Universal by Rachael E. Jack (1, 2); Caroline Blais (3); Christoph Scheepers (1); Philippe G. Schyns (1,2) and Roberto Caldara (1,2) / (1)Department of Psychology, (2) Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging (CCNi) University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QB, Scotland, UK, (3) Department de Psychologie, Universite de Montreal,Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada
(Current Biology – Volume 19, Issue 18, 29 September 2009, Pages 1543-1548: retrieved 19.02.2011 under http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VRT-4X0FH86-5&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F29%2F2009&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=afe59a73a6b115faacec22215d993939&searchtype=a )
Visual Expressions of Emotions in Different Cultures
Spatiotemporal location of emotional intensity representation in Western Caucasian and East Asian culture. In each row, color-coded faces show the culture-specific spatiotemporal location of expressive features representing emotional intensity,for each of the six basic emotions. Color coding is asfollows: blue, Western Caucasian; red, East Asian, where values reflect the statistic. All color-coded regions show a significant (P<0.05) cultural difference asindicated by asterisks labeled on the color bar. Note: for the EA models (i.e., red face regions), emotional intensity is represented with characteristic early activations.
Expression of Emotions in Western and East Asian Cultures
(…) The Western Caucasian models form six emotionally homogenous clusters (e.g., all 30 “happy” models belong to the same cluster, color-coded in purple). In contrast, the East Asian models show considerable model dissimilarity within each emotion category and overlap between categories, particularly for “surprise”,“fear”, “disgust”, “anger” and “sad”(note the heterogeneous color coding of these models). (…)
(…) First, whereas Westerners represent each of the six basic emotions with a distinct set of facial movements common to the group, Easterners do not. Second, Easterners represent emotional intensity with distinctive dynamic eye activity. By refuting the long-standing universality hypothesis, our data highlight the powerful influence of culture on shaping basic behaviors once considered biologically hardwired. (…)
Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal by Rachael E. Jack (a,b,1), Oliver G. B. Garrod (b), Hui Yu (b), Roberto Caldara (c), and Philippe G. Schyns (b) – (a) School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, Scotland G12 8Q (b); Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, University of Glasgow, Scotland G12 8QB, UnitedKingdom; and (c) Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg 1700, Switzerland; see also PNAS May 8, 2012; vol. 109 no. 19
(retrieved 23.06.2013 at http://www.pnas.org/content/109/19/7241.full.pdf+html)
Emoticons in Different Cultures
(…) Emoticon styles can be either horizontal or vertical, where horizontal style is known to be preferred by western countries, and the vertical style by eastern countries. This study finds that an important factor determining emoticon style is language rather than geography. Regardless of their inherent meaning, most emoticons co-appeared with both positive and negative affect words (e.g., haha, smile, kill, freak). Furthermore, the contexts and sentiments that were frequently associated with a given emoticon varied from one culture to another. Our finding confirms that facial expressions may not be universal (…); people from different cultures perceive and employ facial expressions in unique ways, as easterners smile and frown with their eyes, whereas westerners do so with their mouth. This was even true in the online world. Therefore one might want to consider the cultural background of one’s followers to communicate efficiently in online social networks. (…)
Emoticon Style: Interpreting Differences in Emoticons Across Cultures by Jaram Park, Graduate School of Culture Technology, KAIST firstname.lastname@example.org; Vladimir Barash, Morningside Analytics email@example.com; Clay Fink, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory firstname.lastname@example.org; Meeyoung Cha, Graduate School of Culture Technology, KAIST email@example.com;
(retrieved 30.10.2013 at http://mia.kaist.ac.kr/icwsm13_emoticon.pdf and http://crowdresearch.org/blog/?p=7720)
Placing the Face in Context: Cultural Differences in the Perception of Facial Emotion
(…) Two studies tested the hypothesis that in judging people’s emotions from their facial expressions, Japanese, more than Westerners, incorporate information from the social context. In Study 1, participants viewed cartoons depicting a happy, sad, angry, or neutral person surrounded by other people expressing the same emotion as the central person or a different one. The surrounding people’s emotions influenced Japanese but not Westerners’ perceptions of the central person. These differences reflect differences in attention, as indicated by eye-tracking data (Study 2): Japanese looked at the surrounding people more than did Westerners. Previous findings on East–West differences in contextual sensitivity generalize to social contexts, suggesting that Westerners see emotions as individual feelings, whereas Japanese see them as inseparable from the feelings of the group. (…)
Placing the Face in Context: Cultural Differences in the Perception of Facial Emotion by Takahiko Masuda, University of Alberta; Phoebe C. Ellsworth, University of Michigan; Batja Mesquita, Wake Forest University; Janxin Leu, University of Washington; Shigehito Tanida, Hokkaido University; Ellen Van de Veerdonk, University of Amsterdam
Download the full pfd here.
(retrieved 23.06.2013 at http://www.ualberta.ca/~tmasuda/index.files/MasudaEllsworthMesquitaLeuTanidavandeVeerdonk2008.pdf
Perception of Bodily Sensations during Emotion in different Cultures
“While riding a train, a Chinese friend and I had eaten a lot of snacks that did not mix well. I suddenly suffered from nausea and realized that I was pressing the epigastric region with one hand. I was sure that I had strained my stomach.
At the same moment, my Chinese friend said that he was suffering from vertigo and he seemed very concerned about it. I inquired about his perception several times. He insisted that he was suffering from vertigo and only after some time he remarked that something was wrong with his stomach.
I tried also to experience vertigo, and actually found it was not very difficult because the nausea was associated with a feeling of unclarity or confusion in my head.”
(…) This anectodical story illustrates well how bodily changes in similar situations can be experienced very differently by members of different cultures. Such differences can originate at various levels of the somatisation processes, from the production of physiological changes, to their detection, to their labelling and, ultimatly, to their memory. (…)
The perception of bodily sensations during emotion: A cross-cultural perspective by Pierre Philippot & Bernard Rimé, Research Unit for Clinical & Social Psychology, University of Louvain at Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; to appear in Polish Journal of Social Psychology, 1997
(retrieved 23.06.2013 at http://www.ecsa.ucl.ac.be/personnel/philippot/Intercult_Polish.pdf)
Written by NoToes
24/02/2011 at 20:27
Tagged with (2) Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging (CCNi) University of Glasgow, (3) Department de Psychologie, 1), 2) / (1)Department of Psychology, 2) and Roberto Caldara (1, 2); Caroline Blais (3); Christoph Scheepers (1); Philippe G. Schyns (1, 2012; vol. 109 no. 19; "Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal", 29 September 2009, Akihiro Tanaka, and Philippe G. Schyns (b) - (a) School of Psychology, APS journal Psychological Science, b, Canada, Cultural Confusions Show that Facial Expressions Are Not Universal, Cultural Confusions Show that Facial Expressions Are Not Universal by Rachael E. Jack (1, Cultural Differences in the Perception of Facial Emotion, Current Biology - Volume 19, David Matsumoto, Emoticon Style: Interpreting Differences in Emoticons Across Cultures, Emoticon Style: Interpreting Differences in Emoticons Across Cultures by Jaram Park, emoticons in different cultures, Expression of Emotions in different Cultures, facial expression of blind, Facial Expression of Blind Athletes, facial expressions, Facial Expressions Are Not Universal, facial expressions are universal, Facial Expressions Develop in the Womb, facial expressions from blind, Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal, facial expressions of emotions, Facial Expressions of Emotions in different cultures, Fribourg 1700, Glasgow G12 8QB, Graduate School of Culture Technology, Hui Yu (b), I Feel Your Voice: Cultural Differences in the Multisensory Perception of Emotion, Issue 18, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory firstname.lastname@example.org; Meeyoung Cha, KAIST email@example.com; Vladimir Barash, KAIST firstname.lastname@example.org;, Meeyoung Cha, Montreal, Morningside Analytics email@example.com; Clay Fink, Oliver G. B. Garrod (b), origin of facial expressions, Perception and Expression of Emotions in different Cultures, Perception and Expression of Emotions in Social Context, Perception of Bodily Sensations during Emotion in different Cultures, Placing the Face in Context, Placing the Face in Context: Cultural Differences in the Perception of Facial Emotion, PQ H3C 3J7, Rachael E. Jack, Rachael E. Jack (a, Roberto Caldara (c), Scotland, Scotland G12 8Q (b); Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Scotland G12 8QB, Switzerland; see also PNAS May 8, UK, UnitedKingdom; and (c) Department of Psychology, Universite de Montreal, University of Fribourg, University of Glasgow, Visual Perception of Emotions, Visual Perception of Emotions in different cultures, Voice and Emotions
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